To evaluate the performance of a new first trimester web-based software for the detection of chromosomal anomalies using a combination of ultrasound and biochemistry.
Registry-based cohort study.
Ultrasound units in the Stockholm region.
20 710 women with singleton pregnancies were examined at 11(+0) to 13(+6) weeks' gestational age during a three-year period 2006-2009.
The risks for trisomy 21, 13 and 18 were calculated using a combination of maternal age, serum markers and nuchal translucency. Individual risk estimates were calculated and then reported to a web-based system using a new algorithm based on likelihood ratios of each marker derived from Gaussian distributions in normal and affected pregnancies.
The impact on rates of invasive testing and the incidence of children born with Down's syndrome after implementing the method.
Approximately a third of all pregnant women in the region were examined with the combined test. The detection and test positive rates for Down's syndrome was 90 and 6.8%, respectively. Invasive testing among pregnant women decreased from 15 to 8% after introducing the method but the incidence of children born with Down's syndrome did not decrease during the study period.
The new web-based software is an effective method for the detection of trisomy 21 with similar performance compared to other programs. However, it needs to be offered to all pregnant women to have an impact on the incidence of Down's syndrome.
To evaluate the effects of postgraduate education in obstetrical ultrasound on the prenatal detection rate of congenital heart disease.
Tertiary care center.
Experienced and less experienced midwives performing ultrasound scans.
Number of fetuses and live-born children with severe congenital heart malformations were extracted from patient records. The detection rates of experienced and less experienced midwives were compared following a postgraduate training program in obstetrical ultrasound.
The prenatal detection rate of complex congenital heart malformations.
The prenatal detection rate for the entire unit increased significantly during the study period (32 vs. 69%, p
To evaluate the performance and cost efficacy of different first-trimester contingent screening strategies based on an initial analysis of biochemical markers.
Swedish National Quality Register for prenatal diagnosis.
35,780 women with singleton pregnancies.
Serum values from first trimester biochemistry were re-analyzed in a contingent approach. For risks between 1:40 and 1:1000, risk estimates from nuchal translucency measurements were added and outcomes were compared using either a final cut-off risk of 1:200 to proceed with invasive testing or offering non-invasive prenatal testing. In a subgroup of 12,836 women with regular menstrual cycles the same analyses were performed using data on the last menstrual period for determining gestational age. The costs of detecting one case of aneuploidy were compared.
Comparison of screening strategies.
The detection rate was the same (87%) in the contingent group as in complete combined screening, with only 41% requiring a nuchal translucency scan. As an alternative, offering non-invasive prenatal testing to the intermediate risk group would result in a detection rate of 98%, but the cost to detect one case of trisomy 21 would be 83% higher than the cost associated with traditional combined screening.
First trimester examination using a contingent approach will achieve similar results compared with full combined screening. Non-invasive prenatal testing will not be cost-effective when a high proportion of pregnancies need further testing.
We investigated the effects of maternal autoimmune disease and fetal congenital heart block (CHB) on pregnancy outcomes in anti-Ro/SSA-positive women and assessed the population-based incidence of isolated CHB.
One hundred and ninety nine anti-Ro/SSA-positive pregnancies were prospectively followed at our center (2000-2013). Seven fetuses developed atrioventricular block (AVB) II-III. In this period, another 13 anti-Ro/SSA-positive pregnancies were referred for fetal bradycardia, subsequently diagnosed with AVB II-III. Cesarean section rates, gestational age, body measurements at birth, and the incidence of CHB in these 212 pregnancies were analyzed in relation to fetal atrioventricular conduction and maternal diagnosis and compared with data from the Medical Birth Registry on 352,104 pregnancies in the Stockholm County.
The prevalence of maternal systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and primary Sjögren's syndrome and the outcomes at birth were similar in normal conduction and AVB I cases. Only 1/20 AVB II-III cases (0/7 in the surveillance group) had a mother diagnosed with SLE, compared with 73/192 in cases with normal conduction or AVB I. Excluding cases with AVB II-III, SLE mothers more frequently delivered by cesarean section (31% vs. 20%, p
Prenatal diagnosis involves methods used in early pregnancy as either screening tests or diagnostic methods. The aims of the study were to i) investigate guidelines on prenatal diagnosis in the counties of Sweden, ii) investigate uptake of prenatal diagnosis, and iii) background characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in relation to different prenatal diagnostic methods.
A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from the Swedish Pregnancy Register 2011 to 2013 (284,789 pregnancies) was performed. Additionally, guidelines on prenatal diagnosis were collected. Biostatistical and epidemiological analyses were performed including calculation of odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
The national uptake of routine ultrasound examination, Combined Ultrasound and Biochemical test (CUB), Amniocentesis (AC) and Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) were 97.6, 33.0, 2.6 and 1.1%, respectively. From 2012, 6/21 counties offered CUB test to all pregnant women, nine counties at specific indications, and five counties did not offer CUB at all. Advanced maternal age demonstrated the highest impact on uptake of prenatal diagnosis. Further, university educational level in relation to lower educational level was associated with an increased likelihood of undergoing CUB (OR 2.30, 95% CI 2.26-2.35), AC (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.46-1.63) and CVS (OR 2.68, 95% CI 2.44-2.93).
Offers of prenatal diagnosis varied considerably between counties resulting in unequal access to prenatal diagnosis for pregnant women. The intentions of the Swedish Health and Medical Services Act stating equal care for all, was thus not fulfilled.
First-trimester pregnancy risk evaluation facilitates individualised antenatal care, as well as application of preventive strategies for pre-eclampsia or birth of a small for gestational age infant. A range of early intervention strategies in pregnancies identified as high risk at the end of the first trimester has been shown to decrease the risk of preterm pre-eclampsia (
The objective of this study was to present the Swedish Pregnancy Register and to explore regional differences in maternal characteristics, antenatal care, first trimester combined screening and delivery outcomes in Sweden.
The Pregnancy Register (www.graviditetsregistret.se) collects data on pregnancy and childbirth, starting at the first visit to antenatal care and ending at the follow-up visit to the antenatal care, which usually occurs at around 8-16 weeks postpartum. The majority of data is collected directly from the electronic medical records. The Register includes demographic, reproductive and maternal health data, as well information on prenatal diagnostics, and pregnancy outcome for the mother and the newborn.
Today the Register covers more than 90% of all deliveries in Sweden, with the aim to include all deliveries within 2018. The care providers can visualize quality measures over time and compare results with other clinics, regionally and nationally by creating reports on an aggregated level or using case-mix adjusted Dash Boards in real time. Detailed data can be extracted after ethical approval for research. In this report, we showed regional differences in patient characteristics, antenatal care, fetal diagnosis and delivery outcomes in Sweden.
Our report indicates that quality in antenatal and delivery care in Sweden varies between regions, which warrants further actions. The Swedish Pregnancy Register is a new and valuable resource for benchmarking, quality improvement and research in pregnancy, fetal diagnosis and delivery.
Cites: BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 Aug 30;14:364 PMID 25175811