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Assessment of consumption of marine food in Greenland by a food frequency questionnaire and biomarkers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature123804
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18361
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Charlotte Jeppesen
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Peter Bjerregaard
Author Affiliation
The National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen K, Denmark. chj@niph.dk
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:18361
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Biological Markers
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fatty Acids - blood
Female
Food Habits
Greenland
Humans
Male
Mercury - blood
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Seafood
Abstract
We studied the association and agreement between questionnaire data and biomarkers of marine food among Greenland Inuit.
Cross sectional study.
The study population comprised 2,224 Inuit, age 18+ (43% men); data collected 2005-2008 in Greenland. Using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), we calculated consumption of seal, whale, and fish (g/day) and as meals/month, intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), total N3, and mercury. We measured erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA) and whole blood mercury (Hg). Associations were assessed by Pearson correlation and agreement between the 2 methods was assessed by Bland-Altman plots depicting mean difference between the methods. Using multiple linear regressions, the associations were studied between whole blood mercury, erythrocyte FA and frequency or gram per day of seal, whale, and fish.
Partial correlations ranged from r=0.16, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
22663940 View in PubMed
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The association between blood pressure and whole blood methylmercury in a cross-sectional study among Inuit in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122978
Source
Environ Health. 2012;11:44
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Anni Brit Sternhagen Nielsen
Michael Davidsen
Peter Bjerregaard
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Research in Greenland, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark. annibrit@sund.ku.dk
Source
Environ Health. 2012;11:44
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Blood pressure
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Food Contamination
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Hypertension - blood - epidemiology - ethnology
Inuits
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Mercury - blood
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - toxicity
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
The Inuit in Greenland have a high average consumption of marine species and are highly exposed to methylmercury, which in other studies has been related to hypertension. Data on the relation between methylmercury and hypertension is limited, especially in populations subjected to a high exposure of methylmercury. We examined the relation between whole blood mercury and blood pressure (BP) in Inuit in Greenland.
A cross-sectional population-based study among adult Inuit in Greenland was performed in 2005-2009. Information on socio-demography, lifestyle, BP, blood samples and clinical measurements was obtained - the latter after overnight fasting. BP was measured according to standardized guidelines. Whole blood mercury concentration was used as a marker of exposure. The analyses were restricted to Inuit aged 30-69 years with four Greenlandic grandparents (N = 1,861). Multivariate regression analyses with inclusion of confounders were done separately for men and women with the omission of participants receiving anti-hypertensive drugs, except for logistic regression analyses of the relation between mercury and presence of hypertension (yes/no).
The mean whole blood mercury level was 20.5 µg/L among men and 14.7 µg/L among women. In multivariate analyses adjusted for confounders, diastolic BP decreased with increasing mercury concentration. In men diastolic BP decreased significantly for each four-fold increase in mercury concentration (Beta = -0.04, standard error = 0.01, p = 0.001), while no relation between mercury and diastolic BP was found among women. For systolic BP, a similar non-statistically significant result was seen only for men (Beta = -0.02, standard error = 0.01, p = 0.06). A relation between mercury and hypertension was only found in men; the odds ratio for hypertension was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99). No relation between quintiles of mercury and hypertension was found. The relationship between mercury and BP parameters may be non-linear: In analyses of quintiles of mercury the overall effect of mercury on BP parameters was only statistically significant for diastolic BP among men (Wald test, p = 0.01), however pairwise comparisons showed that some quintiles were not statistically different. This result is supported by LOESS modelling.
No adverse associations between whole blood mercury and blood pressure were found. With increasing whole blood mercury concentrations, diastolic BP and the risk of hypertension decreased among men in the study: this may be explained by confounding by exercise or unknown factors.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22747793 View in PubMed
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Association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in indigenous populations of the Circumpolar North.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258481
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73:25808
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kavita Singh
Peter Bjerregaard
Hing Man Chan
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73:25808
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Since the 1990s, research has been carried out to monitor environmental contaminants and their effects on human health in the Arctic. Although evidence shows that Arctic indigenous peoples are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and do worse on several dimensions of health compared with other populations, the contribution of such exposures on adverse outcomes is unclear.
The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the published epidemiological literature that has examined association between environmental contaminants and health outcomes in Arctic indigenous populations.
A literature search was conducted in OVID Medline (1946-January 2014) using search terms that combined concepts of contaminant and indigenous populations in the Arctic. No language or date restrictions were applied. The reference lists of review articles were hand-searched.
Of 559 citations, 60 studies were relevant. The studies fell under the following categories: paediatric (n=18), reproductive health (n=18), obstetrics and gynaecology (n=9), cardiology (n=7), bone health (n=2), oncology (n=2), endocrinology (n=2) and other (n=2). All studies, except one from Arctic Finland, were either from Nunavik or Greenland. Most studies assessed polychlorinated biphenyls (n=43) and organochlorine pesticides (n=29). Fewer studies examined heavy metals, perfluorinated compounds, or polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Details of study results for each health category are provided.
It is difficult to make conclusive statements about the effects of environmental contaminants on health due to mixed results, small number of studies and studies being restricted to a small number of regions. Meta-analytical synthesis of the evidence should be considered for priority contaminants and health outcomes. The following research gaps should be addressed in future studies: association of contaminants and health in other Arctic regions (i.e. Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut, Nunatsiavut, Alaska, European North and Russian North); assessment of contaminants on chronic diseases; inclusion of clinical endpoints in assessments; and assessment of the emerging contaminants of perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
PubMed ID
25491153 View in PubMed
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Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature279899
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):32757
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2016
Author
Mylène Riva
Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen
Peter Bjerregaard
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016 Jan;75(1):32757
Date
Jan-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Background Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations. Objectives To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit. Methods Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type. Results Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men. Conclusions The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.
PubMed ID
28156396 View in PubMed
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Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature277981
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75:32757
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Mylène Riva
Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen
Peter Bjerregaard
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016;75:32757
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations.
To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit.
Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type.
Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men.
The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.
PubMed ID
27938632 View in PubMed
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Association between individual-level and community-level socio-economic status and blood pressure among Inuit in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289278
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:32757
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2016
Author
Mylène Riva
Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen
Peter Bjerregaard
Author Affiliation
Institute for Health and Social Policy and Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; mylene.riva@mcgill.ca.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:32757
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Blood pressure
Female
Greenland
Health status
Humans
Inuits - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Distribution
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Despite abundant evidence that socio-economic status (SES) is a fundamental determinant of health, there is a dearth of research examining association between SES, measured at the individual and community levels, and cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations.
To examine the influence of individual-level and community-level SES on systolic and diastolic blood pressure among Greenlandic Inuit.
Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from the Inuit Health in Transition - Greenland Survey, to which 3,108 Greenlandic Inuit aged 18 years and older participated. Blood pressure is measured using an automatic device, according to standardized protocol. Individual SES is measured by education. Community socio-economic conditions are measured using combined information on average disposable household income and settlement type.
Education was not significantly associated with blood pressure. There was an inverse U-shape association between community socio-economic conditions and blood pressure with significantly lower SBP and DBP among participants living in remote traditional villages characterized by lower average disposable household income and in affluent more urbanized towns. Sex-stratified analyses demonstrate the salience of community conditions for men.
The association observed between blood pressure and community-level socio-economic conditions suggests that public health and social policies, programmes and interventions aiming to improve living conditions might improve cardiovascular health in Greenland. Studies are required to further examine social gradients in cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity among indigenous populations using different measures of SES.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27938632 View in PubMed
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Association between the -455T>C promoter polymorphism of the APOC3 gene and the metabolic syndrome in a multi-ethnic sample.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159703
Source
BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:80
Publication Type
Article
Date
2007
Author
Rebecca L Pollex
Matthew R Ban
T Kue Young
Peter Bjerregaard
Sonia S Anand
Salim Yusuf
Bernard Zinman
Stewart B Harris
Anthony J G Hanley
Philip W Connelly
Murray W Huff
Robert A Hegele
Author Affiliation
Vascular Biology Research Group, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada. rpollex@robarts.ca
Source
BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:80
Date
2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Apolipoprotein C-III - genetics
Canada
Ethnic Groups
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - ethnology - genetics
Polymorphism, Genetic
Promoter Regions, Genetic
Abstract
Common polymorphisms in the promoter of the APOC3 gene have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia and may impact on phenotypic expression of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The rs7566605 marker, located near the INSIG2 gene, has been found to be associated with obesity, making it also a potential genetic determinant for MetS. The objective of this study is to examine the APOC3 -455T>C and the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphisms as potential genetic determinants for MetS in a multi-ethnic sample.
Subjects were genotyped for both the APOC3 -455T>C and INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphisms, and classified for the presence or absence of MetS (NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions). The total study population included 2675 subjects (> or =18 years of age) from six different geographical ancestries.
For the overall study population, the prevalence of MetS was 22.6% (NCEP ATP III definition). Carriers of > or =1 copy of APOC3 -455C were more likely to have MetS (NCEP ATP III definition) than noncarriers (carrier odds ratio 1.73, 95% CI 1.40 to 2.14, adjusting for age and study group). The basis of the association was related not only to a higher proportion of -455C carriers meeting the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol criteria, but also the blood pressure criteria compared with wild-type homozygotes. Plasma apo C-III concentrations were not associated with APOC3 -455T>C genotype. The INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was not associated with MetS or measures of obesity.
Meta-analysis of the sample of multiple geographic ancestries indicated that the functional -455T>C promoter polymorphism in APOC3 was associated with an approximately 2-fold increased risk of MetS, whereas the INSIG2 rs7566605 polymorphism was not associated with MetS.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18096054 View in PubMed
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Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267334
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Nov;143(Pt A):192-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2015
Author
Charlotte Jeppesen
Beatriz Valera
Nina O Nielsen
Peter Bjerregaard
Marit E Jørgensen
Source
Environ Res. 2015 Nov;143(Pt A):192-7
Date
Nov-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population
Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c-peptide were measured in blood. Fasting participants without diabetes were classified into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glycemia, or type 2 diabetes. We calculated hepatic insulin resistance with homoeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance index, peripheral insulin sensitivity by ISI0,120., and relative beta cell function by c-peptide/insulin ratio. We conducted adjusted linear- and logistic regression analyses.
For an increase in whole blood mercury of 5µg/L we found a positive association with fasting glucose [% change=0.25 (95% CI: 0.20; 0.30); p
PubMed ID
26497629 View in PubMed
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The association of n-3 fatty acids with serum High Density Cholesterol (HDL) is modulated by sex but not by Inuit ancestry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118696
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2013 Jan;226(1):281-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Peter Bjerregaard
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Research in Greenland, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, DK-1353 Copenhagen K, Denmark. pb@niph.dk
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2013 Jan;226(1):281-5
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cholesterol, HDL - blood
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Greenland
Humans
Inuits
Male
Middle Aged
Sex Characteristics
Sex Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity.
Information was obtained from 2280 Inuit who participated in a countrywide health survey in Greenland in 2005-2009. n-3 intake was estimated from an FFQ and analyses of Red Blood Cell (RBC) membranes. Serum total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride were analysed. Obesity was measured. Information on ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity was obtained from an interview.
In linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, obesity, ethnicity, alcohol, and smoking serum HDL, LDL and triglyceride were associated with n-3 intake estimated as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in RBC membranes. For HDL the interaction between EPA and sex was significant (p 
PubMed ID
23177971 View in PubMed
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Associations between birth weight and glucose intolerance in adulthood among Greenlandic Inuit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298851
Source
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Mar 06; 150:129-137
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-06-2019
Author
Pernille Falberg Rønn
Marit Eika Jørgensen
Lærke Steenberg Smith
Peter Bjerregaard
Inger Katrine Dahl-Petersen
Christina Viskum Lytken Larsen
Niels Grarup
Gregers Stig Andersen
Author Affiliation
Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. Electronic address: pernille.falberg.roenn@regionh.dk.
Source
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Mar 06; 150:129-137
Date
Mar-06-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
To examine the association between birth weight and glucose intolerance in adult Greenlandic Inuit.
We examined 1429 participants aged 18-56?years from two population-based, cross-sectional studies in Greenland with information on birth weight. Oral glucose tolerance tests, anthropometric measures and ultrasound of abdominal tissue were performed. Associations of birth weight with glucose markers were analysed using linear or logistic regressions. Spline analyses were conducted to examine u-shaped associations. Adjustments were done for age, sex, birth place, family history of diabetes, genetic admixture, TBC1D4 p.Arg684Ter carrier status, BMI and visceral adipose tissue.
The median birthweight was 3300?g and 3.9% had type 2 diabetes, T2DM. Spline analyses indicated overall linear associations. In fully adjusted analyses, an increase in birth weight of 1?kg was associated with a change in fasting plasma glucose of -0.06?mmol/L (95%CI: -0.11, -0.01), 2-h plasma glucose of -0.16?mmol/L (95%CI: -0.35, 0.02), HOMA-IR of -5.45% (95%CI: -10.34, -0.29), insulin sensitivity index of 7.04% (95%CI: 1.88, 12.45) and a trend towards a reduced risk of hyperglycaemia and T2DM, although statistically insignificant.
Birth weight was inversely associated with hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance independently of adult adiposity. Thus, the findings support low birth weight as a contributing factor for glucose intolerance in adult Inuit in Greenland.
PubMed ID
30851284 View in PubMed
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102 records – page 1 of 11.