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Academic performance, externalizing disorders and depression: 26,000 adolescents followed into adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature310683
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019 Aug; 54(8):977-986
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-2019
Author
Alma Sörberg Wallin
Ilona Koupil
Jan-Eric Gustafsson
Stanley Zammit
Peter Allebeck
Daniel Falkstedt
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1E, 131 64, Stockholm, Sweden. alma.sorberg.wallin@ki.se.
Source
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2019 Aug; 54(8):977-986
Date
Aug-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Academic Performance - psychology
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Depression - epidemiology - psychology
Depressive Disorder, Major - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The incidence of major depression among adults has been shown to be socially differentiated, and there are reasons to seek explanations for this before adulthood. In this cohort study, we examined whether academic performance in adolescence predicts depression in adulthood, and the extent to which externalizing disorders explain this association.
We followed 26,766 Swedish women and men born 1967-1982 from the last year of compulsory school, at age about 16, up to 48 years of age. We investigated the association between grade point average (GPA, standardized by gender) and first diagnosis of depression in national registers of in- or out-patient psychiatric care. We used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for lifetime externalizing diagnoses and potential confounders including childhood socioeconomic position and IQ.
During follow-up, 7.0% of the women and 4.4% of the men were diagnosed with depression. A GPA in the lowest quartile, compared with the highest, was associated with an increased risk in both women (hazard ratio 95% confidence interval 1.7, 1.3-2.1) and men (2.9, 2.2-3.9) in models controlling for potential confounders. Additional control for externalizing disorders attenuated the associations, particularly in women.
The findings suggest that poor academic performance is associated with depression in young adulthood and that the association is partly explained by externalizing disorders. Our results indicate the importance of early detection and management of externalizing disorders among children and adolescents.
PubMed ID
30783692 View in PubMed
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Alcohol and type 2 diabetes: The role of socioeconomic, lifestyle and psychosocial factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300205
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):408-416
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2019
Author
Emilie E Agardh
Andreas Lundin
Anton Lager
Peter Allebeck
Ilona Koupil
Sven Andreasson
Claes-Göran Östenson
Anna-Karin Danielsson
Author Affiliation
1 Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2019 Jun; 47(4):408-416
Date
Jun-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - psychology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
We investigate (a) alcohol consumption in association with type 2 diabetes, taking heavy episodic drinking (HED), socioeconomic, health and lifestyle, and psychosocial factors into account, and (b) whether a seemingly protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption on type 2 diabetes persists when stratified by occupational position.
This population-based longitudinal cohort study comprises 16,223 Swedes aged 18-84 years who answered questionnaires about lifestyle, including alcohol consumption in 2002, and who were followed-up for self-reported or register-based diabetes in 2003-2011. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated in a multivariable-adjusted logistic regression model for all participants and stratified by high and low occupational position. We adjusted for HED, socioeconomic (occupational position, cohabiting status and unemployment), health and lifestyle (body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, smoking, physical inactivity, poor general health, anxiety/depression and psychosocial (low job control and poor social support) characteristics one by one, and the sets of these factors.
Moderate consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes after controlling for health and lifestyle (OR=0.47; 95% CI: 0.29-0.79) and psychosocial factors (OR=0.40; 95% CI: 0.22-0.79) when compared to non-drinkers. When adjusting for socioeconomic factors, there was still an inverse but non-significant association (OR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-1.00). In those with high occupational position, there was no significant association between moderate consumption and type 2 diabetes after adjusting for socioeconomic (OR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.3-1.52), health and lifestyle (OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.32-1.5), and psychosocial factors (OR=0.75; 95% CI: 0.23-2.46). On the contrary, in those with low occupational position, ORs decreased from 0.55 (95% CI: 0.28-1.1) to 0.35 (95% CI: 0.15-0.82) when adjusting for psychosocial factors, a decrease that was solely due to low job control. HED did not influence any of these associations.
Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, after adjusting for HED, health and lifestyle, and psychosocial characteristics. The association was inverse but non-significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. When stratified by occupational position, there was an inverse association only in those with low occupational position and after adjusting for low job control.
PubMed ID
29734853 View in PubMed
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[Alcohol as medication is no good. More risks than benefits according to a survey of current knowledge]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9252
Source
Lakartidningen. 2005 Feb 28-Mar 6;102(9):632-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
Sven Andréasson
Peter Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Statens folkhälsoinstitut och Beroendecentrum, Stockholm, Sweden. sven.andreasson@fhi.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 2005 Feb 28-Mar 6;102(9):632-7
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Alcohol-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology - etiology
Alcoholic Intoxication - complications - epidemiology - etiology
English Abstract
Europe - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Moderate drinking has small effects on health. Alcohol-related risks are greatest for young people, and decrease with age. Women are more sensitive than men to the effects of alcohol. Protective effects of moderate drinking are reported for cardiovascular disease, diabetes type 2 and cognitive functioning. However, moderate drinking also involves risks, especially of injuries, violence, foetal damage, certain forms of cancer, liver disease and hypertension. Alcohol consumption should not be recommended for health reasons. Binge drinking, regardless of age, is a medical risk. Health professionals should discuss the pattern of drinking with patients, especially binge drinking, to a larger extent than is usually the case today.
PubMed ID
15804034 View in PubMed
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Alcohol-attributed disease burden and alcohol policies in the BRICS-countries during the years 1990-2013.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290723
Source
J Glob Health. 2017 Jun; 7(1):010404
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Rynaz Rabiee
Emilie Agardh
Matthew M Coates
Peter Allebeck
Anna-Karin Danielsson
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
J Glob Health. 2017 Jun; 7(1):010404
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - blood - trends
Alcohol-Related Disorders - epidemiology - mortality
Brazil
China
Cost of Illness
Disabled Persons
Evidence-Based Practice
Female
Humans
India
Male
Public Policy
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Russia
South Africa
Abstract
We aimed to assess alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributed disease burden by DALYs (disability adjusted life years) in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) between 1990 and 2013, and explore to what extent these countries have implemented evidence-based alcohol policies during the same time period.
A comparative risk assessment approach and literature review, within a setting of the BRICS countries. Participants were the total populations (males and females combined) of each country. Levels of alcohol consumption, age-standardized alcohol-attributable DALYs per 100?000 and alcohol policy documents were measured.
The alcohol-attributed disease burden mirrors level of consumption in Brazil, Russia and India, to some extent in China, but not in South Africa. Between the years 1990-2013 DALYs per 100 000 decreased in Brazil (from 2124 to 1902), China (from 1719 to 1250) and South Africa (from 2926 to 2662). An increase was observed in Russia (from 4015 to 4719) and India (from 1574 to 1722). Policies were implemented in all of the BRICS countries and the most common were tax increases, drink-driving measures and restrictions on advertisement.
There was an overall decrease in alcohol-related DALYs in Brazil, China and South Africa, while an overall increase was observed in Russia and India. Most notably is the change in DALYs in Russia, where a distinct increase from 1990-2005 was followed by a steady decrease from 2005-2013. Even if assessment of causality cannot be done, policy changes were generally followed by changes in alcohol-attributed disease burden. This highlights the importance of more detailed research on this topic.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28400952 View in PubMed
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[Alcohol, drugs and tobacco smoking causes much of the burden of disease--Trends in Sweden 1990-2010 mapped based DALY method].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267576
Source
Lakartidningen. 2015;112
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Emilie Agardh
Ulrika Boman
Peter Allebeck
Source
Lakartidningen. 2015;112
Date
2015
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Cost of Illness
Female
Humans
Male
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Various attempts have been made to measure the burden of alcohol, drugs and tobacco smoking on population health, and mortality is an often used measure. As part of the governmental strategy to prevent use of alcohol, drugs, doping and tobacco (ANDT) in Sweden, we assessed disease burden measured by DALY (Disability Adjusted Life Years), attributed to alcohol, drugs and tobacco over time, as an overall indicator of problem level. DALY was developed within the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD), and combines life lost to premature death (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD) in one measure. In 2010 tobacco contributed to 7.7% of the total disease burden in Sweden, followed by alcohol (3.4%) and drugs (1.3%). The disease burden caused by tobacco has decreased substantially since 1990, while small changes are observed for alcohol and drugs. Much of the disease burden specially related to drugs and alcohol was related to YLD, which can be captured with the DALY measure.
PubMed ID
25584599 View in PubMed
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Alcohol-related disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden: a national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9536
Source
Addiction. 2004 Feb;99(2):229-36
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2004
Author
Anders Hjern
Peter Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Centre for Epidemiology, National Board of Health and Welfare, Stockholm, Sweden. anders.hjern@sos.se
Source
Addiction. 2004 Feb;99(2):229-36
Date
Feb-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Alcohol-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Emigration and Immigration
Europe - ethnology
Female
Finland - ethnology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Middle East - ethnology
Multivariate Analysis
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
AIMS: The risk of alcohol-related disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants in Sweden were investigated and compared with the Swedish majority population to assess how alcohol habits are modified over generations in a new society. DESIGN: Register study based on multivariate analyses of demographic data, including information on country of birth, from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 linked to data on hospital admissions for alcohol-related disorders during 1990-99 in the National Hospital Discharge Register. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of a national cohort of 1.25 million youth born 1968-79 and 1.47 million adults born 1929-65. RESULTS: First- and second-generation immigrants from Finland had higher relative risks (RRs) for hospital admission because of an alcohol-related disorder compared to the Swedish majority population (socio-economic adjusted RRs 2.1 and 1.9, respectively), while first-generation immigrants born in southern Europe, the Middle East and other non-European countries had lower risks. Second-generation immigrants with heritage in southern Europe, the Middle East and other non-European countries had socio-economic adjusted RRs that were higher relative to the first generation immigrants but lower relative to the Swedish majority population. Intercountry adoptees had the highest adjusted RR (2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of alcohol abuse in the country of origin are strong determinants of alcohol-related disorders in first-generation immigrants. The patterns in second-generation immigrants are influenced by parental countries of origin as well as patterns in the majority population. The Finnish minority and intercountry adoptees are of particular concern in prevention.
PubMed ID
14756715 View in PubMed
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Alcohol use disorders and risk of Parkinson's disease: findings from a Swedish national cohort study 1972-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105788
Source
BMC Neurol. 2013;13:190
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Anna-Karin Eriksson
Sofia Löfving
Russell C Callaghan
Peter Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. anna-karin.eriksson.2@ki.se.
Source
BMC Neurol. 2013;13:190
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcoholism - classification - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Parkinson Disease - classification - epidemiology
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Alcohol has been suggested to be either protective of, or not associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, experimental animal studies indicate that chronic heavy alcohol consumption may have dopamine neurotoxic effects relevant for PD. We studied the association between diagnosed alcohol use disorders and PD.
All individuals in Sweden admitted with a diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder or appendicitis (reference group) between January 1, 1972 and December 31, 2008 were identified through the Swedish National Inpatient Register, and followed for up to 37 years for a diagnosis of PD. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and adjusted for age and sex.
We found 1,741 (0.3%) cases of PD in the cohort of 602,930 individuals, 1,083 (0.4%) among those admitted with an alcohol use disorder and 658 (0.2%) of the individuals admitted with appendicitis. The mean follow-up time was 13.6 and 17.1 years, respectively. The HR for PD associated with an alcohol use disorder was 1.38 (CI 1.25-1.53) adjusted for age and sex. When the risk was estimated in age groups for first hospital admission with PD the highest risk was observed in the lowest age group, =44, HR 2.39 (0.96-5.93), adjusted for age at exposure and sex.
A history of an alcohol use disorder conferred an increased risk of admission with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in both women and men. In particular, the risk seemed higher at lower ages of first admission with Parkinson's disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24314068 View in PubMed
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Are manual workers at higher risk of death than non-manual employees when living in Swedish municipalities with higher income inequality?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature167962
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2007 Apr;17(2):139-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
Göran Henriksson
Peter Allebeck
Gunilla Ringbäck Weitoft
Dag Thelle
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Medicine, Göteborg University SE 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden. goran.henriksson@socmed.gu.se
Source
Eur J Public Health. 2007 Apr;17(2):139-44
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Censuses
Employment - classification - economics - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Income - classification - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Occupations - classification - economics - statistics & numerical data
Poisson Distribution
Poverty Areas
Residence Characteristics - classification
Risk factors
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
Urban Health - statistics & numerical data
Vulnerable Populations - statistics & numerical data
Workload - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
To test the hypothesis that manual workers are at higher risk of death than are non-manual employees when living in municipalities with higher income inequality.
Hierarchical regression was used for the analysis were individuals were nested within municipalities according to the 1990 Swedish census. The outcome was all-cause mortality 1992-1998. The income measure at the individual level was disposable family income weighted against composition of family; the income inequality measure used at the municipality level was the Gini coefficient.
The study population consisted of 1 578 186 people aged 40-64 years in the 1990 Swedish census, who were being reported as unskilled or skilled manual workers, lower-, intermediate-, or high-level non-manual employees.
There was no significant association between income inequality at the municipality level and risk of death, but an expected gradient with unskilled manual workers having the highest risk and high-level non-manual employees having the lowest. However, in the interaction models the relative risk (RR) of death for high-level non-manual employees was decreasing with increasing income inequality (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93), whereas the corresponding risk for unskilled manual workers increased with increasing income inequality (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46). The RRs for skilled manual, low- and medium- level non-manual employees were not significant. Controlling for income at the individual level did not substantially alter these findings, neither did potential confounders at the municipality level.
The findings suggest that there could be a differential impact from income inequality on risk of death, dependent on individuals' social position.
PubMed ID
16899476 View in PubMed
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Associations between income inequality at municipality level and health depend on context - a multilevel analysis on myocardial infarction in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141814
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2010 Sep;71(6):1141-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2010
Author
Göran Henriksson
Gunilla Ringbäck Weitoft
Peter Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Norrbackahuset, SE 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. goran.henriksson@ki.se
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2010 Sep;71(6):1141-9
Date
Sep-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cities - economics - statistics & numerical data
Female
Health status
Humans
Income - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Multilevel Analysis
Myocardial Infarction - epidemiology
Risk factors
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
This study investigates whether a) income inequality in Swedish municipalities increases the risk of myocardial infarction (AMI); b) the association between income inequality and AMI is mediated by level of residential segregation, measured as homogeneity in parishes (as a proxy for neighbourhoods) within municipalities; and c) there is an interaction between parish homogeneity and individual level social position. The study population consisted of all individuals aged 40-64 years in 1990 who lived in municipalities with >50,000 inhabitants (n = 1,284,955). Data on socioeconomic, demographic information and diagnosis data on AMI were obtained by linkage between authority-administered registers and the National Patient Register. All individuals were followed from 1991 onwards until the first relevant discharge, death or end of observation period (1998). We used a multilevel Poisson model where individuals were nested within 729 parishes which in turn were nested in 41 municipalities. We found that the risk for AMI was lower in the municipalities with higher degree of income inequality. Segregation of households in the highest income quintile diluted, but did not eliminate, the association between income inequality and risk of AMI - the degree of parish affluence seemed to be more important as a mediator than other parish characteristics, even when individual level characteristics were added to the model. Interaction analyses showed that the divide between manual workers and non-manual employees became more apparent in parishes with a higher degree of parish affluence. This was more apparent in municipalities with higher income inequality and was due to a decreasing risk among high level non-manual employees and an unchanged risk among manual workers. The results give some support to the idea that income inequality might serve as a proxy for social stratification even in a comparatively egalitarian context.
PubMed ID
20674117 View in PubMed
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Attitudes and behaviors with regards to androgenic anabolic steroids among male adolescents in a county of Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9295
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40(1):1-12
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Sverker Nilsson
Fredrik Spak
Bertil Marklund
Amir Baigi
Peter Allebeck
Author Affiliation
Department of Primary Health Care, Varberg, Sweden. s.nilsson@neptunuskliniken.nu
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40(1):1-12
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anabolic Agents - toxicity
Androgens - toxicity
Attitude to Health
Body Constitution - drug effects
Body Image
Comorbidity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Doping in Sports - psychology
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Growth Hormone - toxicity
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Opioid-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Street Drugs - toxicity
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes towards androgenic anabolic steroids among male adolescents who have used anabolics compared to those who have not. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional survey was performed in the year 2000 in all secondary schools in the county of Halland on the west coast of Sweden. PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: An anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire was distributed to all classes with 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old male adolescents. The response rate was 92.7% (n=4049). FINDINGS: Those who admitted having used androgenic anabolic steroids differed in several ways from those who had not. Fewer believed androgenic anabolic steroids to be harmful [odds ratio (OR) = 0.15, 95% CI 0.08-0.30] and more believed that girls preferred boys with large muscles (OR = 6.1, 95% CI 3.4-11.0). They trained more often at gyms (OR = 5.6, 95% CI 3.0-10.6), drank more alcohol (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 2.0-9.1), and had used narcotic drugs more often (OR = 15.3, 95% CI 8.5-27.5) than the other male adolescents. More immigrants than native-born adolescents had used anabolics (OR = 4.2, 95% CI 2.2-7.9). CONCLUSION: Attitudes towards anabolics differ between users and nonusers. These aspects may be beneficial to focus on as one part of a more complex intervention program in order to change these attitudes and decrease the misuse of androgenic anabolic steroids.
PubMed ID
15702646 View in PubMed
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67 records – page 1 of 7.