Exposure to organic solvents has been suggested to cause or exacerbate renal disease, but methodologic concerns regarding previous studies preclude firm conclusions. We examined the role of organic solvents in a population-based case-control study of early-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). All native Swedish residents aged 18 to 74 yr, living in Sweden between May 1996 and May 1998, formed the source population. Incident cases of CRF in a pre-uremic stage (n = 926) and control subjects (n = 998), randomly selected from the study base, underwent personal interviews that included a detailed occupational history. Expert rating by a certified occupational hygienist was used to assess organic solvent exposure intensity and duration. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR) in logistic regression models, with adjustment for potentially important covariates. The overall risk for CRF among subjects ever exposed to organic solvents was virtually identical to that among never-exposed (OR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.25). No dose-response relationships were observed for lifetime cumulative solvent exposure, average dose, or exposure frequency or duration. The absence of association pertained to all subgroups of CRF: glomerulonephritis (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.34), diabetic nephropathy (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.41), renal vascular disease (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.75), and other renal CRF (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.27). The results from a nationwide, population-based study do not support the hypothesis of an adverse effect of organic solvents on CRF development, in general. Detrimental effects from subclasses of solvents or on specific renal diseases cannot be ruled out.
Previous literature, although not consistent, suggests that moderate alcohol consumption might be associated with decreased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in women. Thus, we examined the association between alcohol intake and the incidence of RCC by analyzing data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort, a population-based prospective cohort of 59,237 women, aged 40-76 years, who, at baseline in 1987-1990, were cancer free and had completed a food-frequency questionnaire including questions about alcohol consumption. Through June 30, 2004, 132 incident cases of RCC were diagnosed. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate age and body mass index (BMI) adjusted rate ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Women who consumed >4.3 grams per day of alcohol (ethanol) had nonsignificantly lower risk of RCC than did women who consumed or = 55 years of age at entry into the cohort, corresponding risk estimates were RR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.10-1.05, p for trend = 0.04 and among women with BMI >25 kg/m2, RR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.97, p for trend = 0.04. Consistent with these findings, women who drank 1 or more servings of total alcoholic beverages per week had lower RCC risk than did women who drank less (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.41-0.94); the corresponding estimate for women > or = 55 years of age was RR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88. Results from our prospective cohort study of middle-aged and elderly women indicate that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased risk of RCC.
For determining whether smoking is associated with an increased risk for chronic renal failure (CRF) overall and by type of renal disease, smoking data were analyzed from a nationwide population-based case-control study. Eligible as cases were native 18- to 74-yr-old Swedes whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women). A total of 926 cases (78% of all eligible) and 998 control subjects (75% of 1330 randomly selected subjects from the source population), frequency matched to the cases by gender and age within 10 yr, were included. A face-to-face interview and a self-administered questionnaire provided information about smoking habits and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk for disease-specific types of CRF among smokers compared with never-smokers. Despite a modest and nonsignificant overall association, the risk increased with high daily doses (OR among smokers of >20 cigarettes/d, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.15), long duration (OR among smokers for >40 yr, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.09), and a high cumulative dose (OR among smokers with >30 pack-years, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.14). Smoking increased risk most strongly for CRF classified as nephrosclerosis (OR among smokers with >20 pack-years, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.8), but significant positive associations were also noted with glomerulonephritis. This study thus suggests that heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of CRF for both men and women, at least CRF classified as nephrosclerosis and glomerulonephritis.
Since the start in 2005 virtually all patients with newly diagnosed renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Sweden are reported to the National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register (NSKCR). The register contains information on histopathology, nuclear grade, clinical stage, preoperative work-up, treatment, recurrence, and survival.
A total of 8556 patients with newly diagnosed RCC were registered in the NSKCR from 2005 to 2013 resulting in a coverage of 99% as compared to the Swedish Cancer Registry. The mean tumor size at detection decreased from 70 mm in 2005 to 64 mm in 2010. The proportion of patients who were incidentally detected increased. The proportion of patients with tumor stage T1a who underwent partial nephrectomy increased from 22% in 2005 to 56% in 2012. Similarly, the proportion of laparoscopically performed radical nephrectomies increased from 6% in 2005 to 17% in 2010. During the five years of follow-up 20% of the patients had a recurrence.
Over the last decade there has been a trend of earlier detection and less advanced tumors at detection in patients with RCC. An increasing proportion of the patients undergo laparoscopic and nephron-sparing procedures.
The aims of this study were to create a cohort of retrospectively collected renal cell carcinoma (RCC) specimens to be used a basis for prognostic molecular studies, and to investigate the outcome and time trends in patients surgically treated for RCC in a single-centre cohort.
Patients undergoing surgery for RCC between 1986 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical records were reviewed, and the diagnostic tissue was re-evaluated according to a modern classification. The change in patient and tumour characteristics over time was analysed.
The study included 345 patients. Smaller tumours, as indicated by primary tumour diameter, tumour (T) stage and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, were found more frequently in later years compared to the early 1990s. No changes in the clinical outcome for the patients were seen among the time periods investigated. Increasing T stage, AJCC stage, primary tumour diameter and decreasing haemoglobin levels were associated with cancer-specific mortality in univariate analysis. A high calcium level was significantly associated with increased cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio?=?4.25, 95% confidence interval 1.36-13.28) in multivariate analysis.
This study on patients who underwent surgery for RCC from 1986 to 2010 at a single institution in Sweden indicates that there has been a change in tumour characteristics of patients diagnosed with RCC over time. It was also shown that calcium levels were an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific mortality in this cohort. This cohort could provide a valuable basis for further molecular studies.
The detection of acrylamide, classified as a probable human carcinogen, in commonly consumed foods created public health alarm. Thus far, only 2 epidemiologic studies have examined the effect of dietary acrylamide on cancer risk. Presently, we reanalyzed data from a large population-based Swedish case-control study of renal cell cancer. Food frequency data were linked with national food databases on acrylamide content, and daily acrylamide intake was estimated for participants. The risk of renal cell cancer was evaluated for intake of food items with elevated acrylamide levels and for total daily acrylamide dose. Adjusting for potential confounders, there was no evidence that food items with elevated acrylamide, including coffee (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.4-1.1), crisp breads (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.6-1.6) and fried potatoes (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.7), were associated with a higher risk of renal cell cancer risk. Furthermore, there was no association between estimated daily acrylamide intake through diet and cancer risk (OR(highest vs. lowest quartile) = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.8; p for trend = 0.8). The results of this study are in line with the 2 previous studies examining dietary acrylamide and suggest there is no association between dietary acrylamide and risk of renal cell cancer.
Findings of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk have been inconclusive. To study the association between fruits and vegetables and risk of RCC in a population-based prospective cohort study of Swedish women, we collected dietary information from 61,000 women age 40-76 years by a food-frequency questionnaire. During 13.4 years of follow-up 122 women developed RCC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Women consuming 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables daily had a relative risk of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.26-1.34) in comparison to them consuming less than once daily. When fruits and vegetables were examined separately, those who consumed more than 75 servings per month of fruits or vegetables had multivariate relative risk of 0.59 (95% CI = 0.27-1.25) and 0.60 (95% CI = 0.31-1.17) respectively, compared to those consuming 11 or less servings per month. Within the group of fruits, the strongest inverse association was observed for banana (p = 0.07 by Wald test). The risk of RCC increased monotonically with increasing intake frequencies of fruit juice (p-value for trend = 0.10). Within the group of vegetables, the strongest inverse association was observed for root vegetables (p = 0.03 by Wald test). The risk of RCC decreased with increasing consumption frequencies of white cabbage (p for trend = 0.07). Frequent consumption of salad vegetables (once or more per day) decreased the risk by 40% (RR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.30-1.22), in comparison to no consumption. Our results suggested that high consumption of fruits and vegetables might be associated with reduced risk of RCC.
The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the impact of quality indicators on the adherence to guidelines for renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
Since 2005, virtually all patients with newly diagnosed RCC in Sweden have been registered in the National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register (NSKCR). The register contains information on histopathology, nuclear grade, clinical stage, preoperative work-up, treatment, recurrence and survival. In addition, a number of quality indicators have been measured in the register aiming to increase the quality of care. The quality indicators are: the coverage of the register, histology reports, preoperative chest computed tomography (CT), partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic surgery, centralization to high-volume hospitals and waiting times.
A total of 8556 patients with diagnosed RCC were registered from 2005 to 2013 (99% coverage). In 2013, 99% of the histopathology reports were standardized. The number of patients with preoperatively chest CT increased from 59% in 2005 to 89% in 2013. The proportion of patients with RCC T1aN0M0 who underwent partial nephrectomy increased from 22% in 2005 to 56% in 2013. Similarly, laparoscopic radical nephrectomies increased from 6% in 2005 to 24% in 2013. The median tumour size at detection decreased from 60 mm in 2005 to 55 mm in 2013. The proportion of patients who were incidentally detected increased from 43% in 2005 to 55% in 2013.
The data show an improved adherence to the guidelines for RCC as measured by quality indicators and a steady process of earlier detection of patients with RCC.
Links between specific foods and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are not well established. Dietary patterns may be a better predictor of RCC risk. Our aim was to identify and examine major dietary patterns and their relation to the risk of RCC in a large prospective cohort study of Swedish women. Complete dietary information was available from a FFQ from 46,572 women aged 40-76 y at baseline. We conducted factor analysis to identify dietary patterns. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs. During a mean of 14.3 y of follow-up, we identified 93 cases of RCC. We observed 3 major dietary patterns in the cohort: Healthy (vegetables, tomato, fish, fruits, poultry, whole grains), Western (sweets, processed meat, refined grains, margarine/butter, high-fat dairy products, fried potato, soft drinks, meat) and Drinker (wine, hard liquor, beer, snacks) pattern. Higher Healthy pattern scores were not significantly associated with decreased risk of RCC (highest vs. lowest tertile RR = 0.81; 95% CI 0.45-1.48 and RR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.27-1.10 among women
Introduction: In 2005, the National Swedish Kidney Cancer Register (NSKCR) was set up to collect data on newly diagnosed patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2015, the NSKCR was linked to a number of national healthcare and demographic registers to construct the Renal Cell Cancer Database Sweden (RCCBaSe). The aim was to facilitate research on trends in incidence, effects of treatment and survival, with detailed data on tumour characteristics, treatment, pharmaceutical prescriptions, socioeconomic factors and comorbidity.Material and methods: All patients registered in the NSKCR between 2005 and 2014 were included. For each case, ten controls and first-degree relatives for cases and controls were identified. The RCCBaSe was created linking all cases, controls and first-degree relatives to a number of national registers with information on co-morbidity, socioeconomic factors and pharmaceutical prescriptions.Results: Between 2005 and 2014, a total of 9,416 patients with RCC were reported to the NSKCR. 94,159 controls and a total cohort of 575,007 individuals including cases, controls and first-degree relatives were identified. Linkage to the Swedish cancer register resulted in 106,772 matches. When linked to the National patient register, 432,677 out-patient and 471,359 in-patient matches were generated. When linked to the Swedish renal registry 1,778 matches were generated. Linkage to the Prescribed drug register resulted in 448,084 matches and linkage to the The Longitudinal integration database for health insurance and labour market studies database resulted in 450,017 matches.Conclusion: By linking the NSKCR to several Swedish national databases, a unique database for RCC research has been created.