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36 records – page 1 of 4.

An extensive gastroenteritis outbreak after drinking-water contamination by sewage effluent, Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140788
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jul;139(7):1105-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2011
Author
J. Laine
E. Huovinen
M J Virtanen
M. Snellman
J. Lumio
P. Ruutu
E. Kujansuu
R. Vuento
T. Pitkänen
I. Miettinen
J. Herrala
O. Lepistö
J. Antonen
J. Helenius
M-L Hänninen
L. Maunula
J. Mustonen
M. Kuusi
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki and Kuopio, Finland.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 2011 Jul;139(7):1105-13
Date
Jul-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Drinking Water - microbiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Sewage - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
An inappropriate cross-connection between sewage- and drinking-water pipelines contaminated tap water in a Finnish town, resulting in an extensive waterborne gastroenteritis outbreak in this developed country. According to a database and a line-list, altogether 1222 subjects sought medical care as a result of this exposure. Seven pathogens were found in patient samples of those who sought treatment. To establish the true disease burden from this exposure, we undertook a population-based questionnaire investigation with a control population, infrequently used to study waterborne outbreaks. The study covered three areas, contaminated and uncontaminated parts of the town and a control town. An estimated 8453 residents fell ill during the outbreak, the excess number of illnesses being 6501. Attack rates were 53% [95% confidence interval (CI) 49.5-56.4] in the contaminated area, 15.6% (95% CI 13.1-18.5) in the uncontaminated area and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8-8.8) in the control population. Using a control population allowed us to differentiate baseline morbidity from the observed morbidity caused by the water contamination, thus enabling a more accurate estimate of the disease burden of this outbreak.
PubMed ID
20843387 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 3a infections from butter in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198523
Source
J Infect Dis. 2000 May;181(5):1838-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2000
Author
O. Lyytikäinen
T. Autio
R. Maijala
P. Ruutu
T. Honkanen-Buzalski
M. Miettinen
M. Hatakka
J. Mikkola
V J Anttila
T. Johansson
L. Rantala
T. Aalto
H. Korkeala
A. Siitonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, FIN-00300 Helsinki, Finland. outi.lyytikainen@ktl. fi.
Source
J Infect Dis. 2000 May;181(5):1838-41
Date
May-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Butter - microbiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cross Infection - epidemiology
Dairying
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Listeria monocytogenes - classification
Listeriosis - epidemiology - etiology - transmission
Male
Middle Aged
Serotyping
Abstract
In February 1999, an outbreak of listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 3a occurred in Finland. All isolates were identical. The outbreak strain was first isolated in 1997 in dairy butter. This dairy began delivery to a tertiary care hospital (TCH) in June 1998. From June 1998 to April 1999, 25 case patients were identified (20 with sepsis, 4 with meningitis, and 1 with abscess; 6 patients died). Patients with the outbreak strain were more likely to have been admitted to the TCH than were patients with other strains of L. monocytogenes (60% vs. 8%; odds ratio, 17.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.8-136.8). Case patients admitted to the TCH had been hospitalized longer before cultures tested positive than had matched controls (median, 31 vs. 10 days; P=.008). An investigation found the outbreak strain in packaged butter served at the TCH and at the source dairy. Recall of the product ended the outbreak.
PubMed ID
10823797 View in PubMed
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The causes of hospital-treated acute lower respiratory tract infection in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature226291
Source
Am J Dis Child. 1991 Jun;145(6):618-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1991
Author
H. Nohynek
J. Eskola
E. Laine
P. Halonen
P. Ruutu
P. Saikku
M. Kleemola
M. Leinonen
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Am J Dis Child. 1991 Jun;145(6):618-22
Date
Jun-1991
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adenoviridae Infections - microbiology
Adolescent
Bacterial Infections - microbiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland
Haemophilus Infections - microbiology
Haemophilus influenzae - isolation & purification
Hospitalization
Humans
Infant
Influenza, Human - microbiology
Male
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis - isolation & purification
Pneumococcal Infections - microbiology
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses - isolation & purification
Respiratory Tract Infections - microbiology
Respirovirus Infections - microbiology
Urban Population
Virus Diseases - microbiology
Abstract
To determine the etiologic agents in children with acute lower respiratory infection.
A survey of a series of patients.
General pediatric hospital serving an urban population with and without referrals in Helsinki, Finland.
135 Finnish children aged 2 months to 15 years (mean, 1.75 years), with clinically defined acute lower respiratory infection (with difficulty of breathing), or found to have fever and a pneumonic infiltrate on chest roentgenogram.
Consecutive sample on voluntary basis.
None.
Of 121 children with adequate samples, an etiologic diagnosis could be established in 84 (70%): 30 (25%) had bacterial, 30 (25%) viral, and 24 (20%) mixed infections. Antibody assays alone identified the agent in 91% of positive cases.
Bacterial infections are common but generally underestimated in acute lower respiratory infection; serologic methods add significantly to their detection.
PubMed ID
1852095 View in PubMed
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Changing epidemiology of hepatitis B infection in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200900
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1999;31(3):251-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
R G Pebody
P. Ruutu
H. Nohynek
P. Leinikki
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1999;31(3):251-4
Date
1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Notification
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hepatitis B - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Abstract
Finland has, until recently, had a very low incidence of hepatitis B infection, reflected in transmission mainly amongst adolescent and adult age-groups with high-risk behaviour. Several recent local outbreaks of acute hepatitis B in Finland may indicate a change in the epidemiology of this infection. We examine time trends of hepatitis B notifications to the new national infectious disease registry. We also analyse all hepatitis B cases notified over the 2-y period from 1 January 1995 to 31 December 1997 by age, sex, place of residence, country of birth and reported route of transmission. The reported incidence of acute hepatitis B increased 3-fold over this period. The main reported route of transmission was related to injecting drug use, although a significant proportion of adolescent female cases was reportedly infected through heterosexual intercourse. A critical evaluation of the current targeted vaccination approach and other prevention policies is required.
PubMed ID
10482052 View in PubMed
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Effect of immunosuppressive therapy on the clinical presentation and outcome of tuberculosis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219795
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Dec;17(6):1012-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
K. Skogberg
P. Ruutu
P. Tukiainen
V. Valtonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Dec;17(6):1012-7
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Antitubercular Agents - therapeutic use
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Immunity, Cellular
Immunocompromised Host
Immunosuppressive Agents - adverse effects
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Retrospective Studies
Tuberculosis - drug therapy - etiology - mortality
Abstract
A total of 177 tuberculosis cases of individuals not infected with human immunodeficiency virus diagnosed during the years 1984-1990 at the Helsinki University Central Hospital were reviewed retrospectively to compare the clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients immunocompromised because of treatment (n = 35) with patients with other underlying conditions (n = 60) and with those without known predisposing factors (n = 82). In immunosuppressed patients compared with other patients, tuberculosis was more frequently disseminated (40% vs. 12%, P
PubMed ID
8110923 View in PubMed
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Failure to prevent cytomegalovirus infection by cytomegalovirus hyperimmune plasma: a randomized trial by the Nordic Bone Marrow Transplantation Group.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57827
Source
Bone Marrow Transplant. 1987 Oct;2(3):299-305
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1987
Author
O. Ringdén
P. Pihlstedt
L. Volin
J. Nikoskelainen
B. Lönnqvist
P. Ruutu
T. Ruutu
A. Toivanen
B. Wahren
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Immunology, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Bone Marrow Transplant. 1987 Oct;2(3):299-305
Date
Oct-1987
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Viral - administration & dosage
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Cytomegalovirus Infections - diagnosis - prevention & control
Humans
Immunization, Passive
Risk factors
Serologic Tests
Abstract
Bone marrow transplantation recipients who were cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositive and/or had a CMV seropositive donor were randomized for treatment with CMV hyperimmune plasma (n = 27) or no treatment at all (n = 27). The CMV hyperimmune plasma had neutralization titers greater than 250 and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers greater than 18,000. Plasma (200 mg/kg body weight) was given on four occasions (during 2 days) from day 3 to day 76 after transplantation. Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups. After transplantation, the median CMV titers increased with greater than 100% in the group receiving the CMV plasma and decreased to less than 50% in the controls (p less than 0.01). Asymptomatic CMV infections occurred in 26% of the patients in the plasma group and 33% of the controls. The frequency of patients with symptomatic CMV infections was also the same in the two groups (51% vs 33%). Three patients each in the two groups developed CMV-associated interstitial pneumonitis. Patient survival and causes of death were similar in the two groups. To conclude, no beneficial effect of CMV hyperimmune plasma was seen in patients at high risk of developing CMV infections.
PubMed ID
2844340 View in PubMed
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Foodborne outbreaks of hepatitis A in a low endemic country: an emerging problem?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206106
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1998 Feb;120(1):55-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1998
Author
R G Pebody
T. Leino
P. Ruutu
L. Kinnunen
I. Davidkin
H. Nohynek
P. Leinikki
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Epidemiol Infect. 1998 Feb;120(1):55-9
Date
Feb-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Child
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Cluster analysis
Disease Outbreaks - statistics & numerical data
Endemic Diseases
Finland - epidemiology
Food Services
Hepatitis A - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Humans
Middle Aged
Occupational Health
Population Surveillance
Schools
Vegetables - microbiology
Abstract
This paper describes 2 outbreaks of hepatitis A infection in Finland, a very low endemic area of hepatitis A infection, where a large proportion of the population is now susceptible to infection by hepatitis A virus (HAV). The first outbreak involved people attending several schools and day-care centres; the second employees of several bank branches in a different city. The initial investigation revealed that both were related to food distributed widely from separate central kitchens. Two separate case-control studies implicated imported salad food items as the most likely vehicle of infection. HAV was detected in the stool of cases from both outbreaks using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; however, comparison of viral genome sequences proved that the viruses were of different origin and hence the outbreaks, although occurring simultaneously, were not linked. Foodborne outbreaks of HAV may represent an increasing problem in populations not immune to HAV.
PubMed ID
9528818 View in PubMed
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Genotypic characterization and historical perspective of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among older and younger Finns, 2008-2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265254
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Nov;20(11):1134-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
P W Smit
M. Haanperä
P. Rantala
D. Couvin
O. Lyytikäinen
N. Rastogi
P. Ruutu
H. Soini
Source
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014 Nov;20(11):1134-9
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Genotype
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Molecular Epidemiology
Molecular Typing
Mycobacterium tuberculosis - classification - genetics - isolation & purification
Tuberculosis - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Abstract
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes obtained from elderly Finns were assessed and compared with those obtained from younger Finns to comprehend the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in Finland. From 2008 to 2011, a total of 1021 M. tuberculosis isolates were characterized by spoligotyping and 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat typing. In total, 733 Finnish-born cases were included in the study, of which 466 (64%) were born before 1945 (older Finns). Of these, 63 (14%) shared an M. tuberculosis genotype with foreign-born or younger Finnish cases (born after 1945), and 59 (13%) shared a genotype with older Finnish cases. Eighty-five per cent had a unique genotypic profile while 70% belonged to T or Haarlem families, suggesting that ongoing transmission is infrequent among young and elderly Finns. Simultaneous reactivation of TB among older Finns was the most likely cause for clustering. As most isolates belonged to Haarlem or T, Finland was most likely affected by a similar TB epidemic at the beginning of the twentieth century as that seen in Sweden and Norway. Younger Finns were significantly more likely to be clustered (56% versus 27%, p
PubMed ID
24944074 View in PubMed
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Healthcare-associated infections in Finnish acute care hospitals: a national prevalence survey, 2005.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157523
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2008 Jul;69(3):288-94
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2008
Author
O. Lyytikäinen
M. Kanerva
N. Agthe
T. Möttönen
P. Ruutu
Author Affiliation
National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. outi.lyytikainen@ktl.fi
Source
J Hosp Infect. 2008 Jul;69(3):288-94
Date
Jul-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Bacteremia - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Cross Infection - epidemiology
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology
Hospitals
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Sex Factors
Surgical Wound Infection - epidemiology
Urinary Tract Infections - epidemiology
Abstract
The objectives of the first national prevalence survey on healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Finland were to assess the extent of HAI, distribution of HAI types, causative organisms, prevalence of predisposing factors and use of antimicrobial agents. The voluntary survey was performed during February-March 2005 in 30 hospitals, including tertiary and secondary care hospitals and 10 (25%) other acute care hospitals in the country. The overall prevalence of HAI was 8.5% (703/8234). Surgical site infection was the most common HAI (29%), followed by urinary tract infection (19%) and primary bloodstream infection or clinical sepsis (17%). HAI prevalence was higher in males, among intensive care and surgical patients, and increased with age and severity of underlying illness. The most common causative organisms, identified in 56% (398/703) of patients with HAIs, were Escherichia coli (13%), Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and Enterococcus faecalis (9%). HAIs caused by multi-resistant microbes were rare (N = 6). A total of 122 patients were treated in contact isolation due to the carriage of multi-resistant microbes. At the time of the survey, 19% of patients had a urinary catheter, 6% central venous line and 1% were ventilated. Antimicrobial treatment was given to 39% of patients. These results can be used for prioritising infection control measures and planning more detailed incidence surveillance of HAI. The survey was a useful tool to increase the awareness of HAI in participating hospitals and to train infection control staff in diagnosing HAIs.
PubMed ID
18439716 View in PubMed
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High sensitivity for tuberculosis in a national integrated surveillance system in Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173520
Source
Euro Surveill. 2005 Jun;10(6):90-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2005
Author
M. Kokki
P. Holmström
P. Ruutu
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
Source
Euro Surveill. 2005 Jun;10(6):90-3
Date
Jun-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Clinical Laboratory Information Systems - organization & administration
Delivery of Health Care, Integrated - organization & administration
Disease Notification - methods
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
National health programs - organization & administration
Population Surveillance - methods
Risk Assessment - methods
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Tuberculosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
Little is known about the sensitivity of surveillance for tuberculosis after integration of formerly dedicated tuberculosis surveillance and control into the general health care system, an integration which took place in Finland in 1987. We compared routine laboratory notifications to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1996, with data collected independently from all laboratories offering M. tuberculosis culture, and with data from patient records. 1059 culture-positive cases were found. The overall sensitivity of the NIDR was 93 % (984/1059). The positive predictive value of a culture-positive case in the NIDR to be a true culture-confirmed case was 99%. For the culture-confirmed cases in the NIDR, one or more physician notification forms had been submitted for 89%. A highly sensitive notification system for culture-positive tuberculosis can be achieved in an integrated national infectious disease surveillance system based on laboratory notification.
PubMed ID
16077215 View in PubMed
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36 records – page 1 of 4.