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15 records – page 1 of 2.

An outbreak of diarrhea due to verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in the Canadian Northwest Territories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6164
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1994;26(6):675-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
1994
Author
P. Orr
B. Lorencz
R. Brown
R. Kielly
B. Tan
D. Holton
H. Clugstone
L. Lugtig
C. Pim
S. MacDonald
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Canada.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1994;26(6):675-84
Date
1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Bacterial Toxins - adverse effects - biosynthesis
Child
Child, Preschool
Cytotoxins - adverse effects - biosynthesis
Diarrhea - epidemiology - microbiology
Disease Outbreaks
Escherichia coli - isolation & purification - metabolism
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Feces - microbiology
Female
Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome - etiology
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Northwest Territories - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Shiga-Like Toxin I
Abstract
In the summer of 1991 a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated diarrhea occurred in 6 Inuit communities in the Canadian Northwest Territories. The total population of these communities is 5,292. Of the 521 individuals who developed diarrhea, 152 (29%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 on stool culture or positive by verotoxin analysis. Median age was 6 years. The attack rate for children
PubMed ID
7747090 View in PubMed
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Epidemiology of infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis in Manitoba, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216988
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Nov;19(5):876-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1994
Author
P. Orr
E. Sherman
J. Blanchard
M. Fast
G. Hammond
R. Brunham
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Canada.
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Nov;19(5):876-83
Date
Nov-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Chlamydia Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Chlamydia trachomatis
Female
Gonorrhea - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy, Ectopic - epidemiology
Recurrence
Abstract
In a study of the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Manitoba during 1981-1990, we retrospectively reviewed laboratory and clinical case notification records as well as hospital and health insurance data concerning pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy. After implementation of a control program in 1987, the annual incidence of chlamydial infection was highest among females aged 15-24 years (3,418 cases per 100,000 residents). Recurrent infection, which occurred in 13.4% of patients, was more common in women (P
PubMed ID
7893873 View in PubMed
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The evolving epidemiology of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in response to control programs in Winnipeg, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204306
Source
Am J Public Health. 1998 Oct;88(10):1496-502
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1998
Author
J F Blanchard
S. Moses
C. Greenaway
P. Orr
G W Hammond
R C Brunham
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology Unit, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. jamieb@gov.mb.ca
Source
Am J Public Health. 1998 Oct;88(10):1496-502
Date
Oct-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Chlamydia Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Gonorrhea - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Incidence
Infection Control
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Poverty Areas
Urban health
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the transmission dynamics of chlamydia and gonorrhea in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and to assess implications for control programs.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea surveillance case reports (1988 through 1995) and contact-tracing reports (1991 through 1995) were examined.
High incidence rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea clustered in geographic core areas characterized by low socioeconomic status. A decline in the number of reported cases of chlamydia (61%) and gonorrhea (64%) occurred between 1988 and 1995. For chlamydia, the decline was most prominent in non-core area cases, while for gonorrhea it was similar in core and non-core areas.
Chlamydia and gonorrhea appear to be evolving through different epidemic phases, with chlamydia transmission, in response to a newly introduced control program, becoming more core dependent and gonorrhea transmission becoming more sporadic in the face of a sustained control effort. Focused control programs, based on an understanding of the transmission dynamics of chlamydia and gonorrhea, may make their elimination a feasible goal.
Notes
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1995 Aug;85(8 Pt 1):1104-87625504
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Nov;19(5):876-837893873
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1996 Oct;174 Suppl 2:S134-438843243
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1996 Oct;174 Suppl 2:S201-138843250
Cites: J Infect Dis. 1996 Oct;174 Suppl 2:S214-228843251
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1983 Jun;117(6):688-946859024
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1980 Sep;70(9):983-67406099
Cites: JAMA. 1963 Oct 5;186:46-914046658
Cites: Sex Transm Dis. 1985 Jan-Mar;12(1):25-324002091
Cites: Nature. 1987 Mar 12-18;326(6109):137-423821890
Cites: Sex Transm Dis. 1988 Jan-Mar;15(1):45-503128882
Cites: Sex Transm Dis. 1988 Oct-Dec;15(4):211-63147525
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1990 Nov;80(11):1338-422240301
Cites: Am J Public Health. 1991 Oct;81(10):1252-81928521
Cites: Sex Transm Dis. 1993 Jul-Aug;20(4):181-918211533
Cites: Sex Transm Dis. 1994 Mar-Apr;21(2 Suppl):S7-138042121
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1996 Feb 1;143(3):269-778561161
PubMed ID
9772851 View in PubMed
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A foodborne outbreak causing a cholinergic syndrome.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211982
Source
J Emerg Med. 1996 May-Jun;14(3):339-44
Publication Type
Article
Author
C. Greenaway
P. Orr
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
J Emerg Med. 1996 May-Jun;14(3):339-44
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Animals
Cooking
Disease Outbreaks
Emergencies
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Foodborne Diseases - complications - epidemiology - therapy
Humans
Insecticides - poisoning
Male
Manitoba - epidemiology
Meat - poisoning
Middle Aged
Organothiophosphorus Compounds - poisoning
Abstract
We report a foodborne outbreak causing a cholinergic syndrome in three members of a family. The clinical presentation was characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weakness. Physical examination revealed evidence of peripheral motor weakness and decreased level of consciousness in all three patients. Bradycardia, hypotension, and seizures occurred in two patients. Although initial therapy included administration of antitoxin for possible botulism, subsequent investigation revealed evidence of accidental organophosphate (fensulfothion) poisoning. The ubiquitous use of organophosphates as agricultural and household insecticides has ensured their continuing importance as causes of foodborne poisoning in both developed and developing countries. Physicians must remain alert to the possibility of non-bacterial causes of foodborne outbreaks in order to initiate prompt and appropriate investigations and specific therapy.
PubMed ID
8782031 View in PubMed
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Gross hematuria in residents of long-term-care facilities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220915
Source
Am J Med. 1993 Jun;94(6):611-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1993
Author
L E Nicolle
P. Orr
H. Duckworth
J. Brunka
J. Kennedy
D. Murray
G K Harding
Author Affiliation
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipe, Canada.
Source
Am J Med. 1993 Jun;94(6):611-8
Date
Jun-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Bacteriuria - complications
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Female Urogenital Diseases - complications
Hematuria - epidemiology - etiology
Homes for the Aged
Humans
Incidence
Male
Male Urogenital Diseases
Manitoba - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Nursing Homes
Prospective Studies
Abstract
To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of gross hematuria in elderly residents of nursing homes and to identify the associations of gross hematuria with urinary infection and the potential contribution of urinary infection to morbidity.
This was a prospective, descriptive study of episodes of gross hematuria identified by the nursing staffs at two long-term-care facilities over 2 years. Episodes were characterized with respect to patient variables, presence of bacteriuria, duration of hematuria, therapeutic interventions, and genitourinary investigations. Clinical and serologic criteria were used to identify invasive infection.
The incidence of gross hematuria was 31/100,000 resident days. Bacteriuria was present in 58 (74%) of 78 episodes with evaluable cultures. Fifty-two (61%) episodes lasted more than 24 hours, 25 (29%) were temporally associated with fever, and antimicrobials were given for 53 (61%) episodes. Gross hematuria occurred more frequently in men than in women and was more frequently associated with fever in men. Twenty-four (28%) episodes occurred in subjects with indwelling catheters, 30 (34%) in subjects with known genitourinary abnormalities, 26 (30%) in subjects with no genitourinary investigations, and 4 (4.6%) in subjects with genitourinary investigations but no abnormalities identified. No adverse clinical outcomes were identified in patients in whom antimicrobial therapy was not initiated. The maximal estimated incidence of invasive urinary infection associated with hematuria was 5.8/100,000 resident days, and of bacterial hemorrhagic cystitis, 6.3/100,000 resident days.
These data suggest that underlying genitourinary abnormalities are present in most elderly institutionalized subjects with gross hematuria when genitourinary investigations are performed. Although bacteriuria is usually present, urinary infection, by itself, is an infrequent cause of gross hematuria. Afebrile hematuria without irritative symptoms probably does not require antimicrobial therapy. A standard approach to this clinical problem in the institutionalized elderly should be developed to optimize patient management and appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy.
PubMed ID
8506887 View in PubMed
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Helicobacter pylori in the Canadian arctic: seroprevalence and detection in community water samples.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature6786
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Jul;94(7):1823-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
I. McKeown
P. Orr
S. Macdonald
A. Kabani
R. Brown
G. Coghlan
M. Dawood
J. Embil
M. Sargent
G. Smart
C N Bernstein
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Canada.
Source
Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Jul;94(7):1823-9
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ABO Blood-Group System
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Antibodies, Bacterial - analysis
Antigens, Bacterial - analysis
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Helicobacter Infections - blood - epidemiology - ethnology
Helicobacter pylori - immunology - isolation & purification
Humans
Inuits
Lewis Blood-Group System
Male
Middle Aged
Northwest Territories - epidemiology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Water Microbiology
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Many North American arctic communities are characterized by risk markers associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, including overcrowded housing and inadequate water supply and sanitation systems. Our aim was to determine the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in two traditional Inuit communities in the central Canadian arctic and to test for the presence of H. pylori, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in local water supplies. METHODS: Samples of venous whole blood from adults and capillary blood from children were collected and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and Helisal Rapid Test, respectively, for IgG antibody to H. pylori. Antibodies to CagA were detected by enzyme immunoassay, and ABO and Lewis antigens were also determined. Demographic and clinical information were collected by questionnaire. Water samples from each community were tested for H. pylori by PCR. RESULTS: One hundred-thirty (50.8%) of 256 subjects from the two communities were positive for H. pylori IgG antibodies. Seropositive subjects were more likely to be male, compared with seronegative individuals (p = 0.01). Antibody status did not differ with respect to age, community, alcohol or cigarette use, number of persons per household, gastrointestinal complaints or previous investigations, medications, or presence of blood group O, Lewis a-b+. CagA antibodies were detected in 78 (61.9%) of 126 H. pylori-seropositive subjects tested; however, 41 (35.3%) of 116 H. pylori-seronegative subjects were also CagA positive. Water samples taken from the water delivery truck in Chesterfield Inlet and two lakes near Repulse Bay were positive for H. pylori. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of H. pylori in the study group was higher than rates in southern Canadian populations, but lower than the seroprevalence previously documented in a Canadian subarctic Indian (First Nations) community. The detection of H. pylori in local water supplies may indicate a natural reservoir for the organism or possible contamination from human sewage.
PubMed ID
10406242 View in PubMed
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Investigation and management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Canadian Inuit: enhancing access to care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4093
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1995;54 Suppl 1:117-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
B. Martin
W. Smith
P. Orr
F. Guijon
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
Arctic Med Res. 1995;54 Suppl 1:117-21
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic regions - ethnology
Canada - epidemiology
Carcinoma in Situ - ethnology - prevention & control
Colposcopy
Delivery of Health Care
Electrosurgery
Female
Humans
Inuits
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms - ethnology - prevention & control
Abstract
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is a major cause of morbidity among Circumpolar women. Cervical cancer comprised 15% of all cancers in Canadian Inuit women from 1969-1988. The age standardized incidence for invasive cervical cancer in Canadian Inuit women is 3.1 times the rate in the general Canadian population. Management of CIN in women of remote Arctic regions has traditionally required multiple visits to specialized medical centres for diagnosis, therapy and follow-up. Such centralized care requires separation of women from their families, resulting in significant medical, emotional and economic costs for the patient, her family and community. In the Canadian Central Arctic, a program for the diagnosis and therapy of CIN has been established using colposcopy with loop electrosurgery, performed by a trained local family practitioner and visiting gynecologist. Early program evaluation has indicated reduction in medical expenditures due to travel costs, minimal procedure-related morbidity and discomfort, and improved patient satisfaction associated with reduced separation from family and community. It is hoped that the program design, which harnesses technology in order to provide improved care closer to home, will be applicable to other Circumpolar regions.
PubMed ID
7639897 View in PubMed
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[Lipids and their correlation with vitamin D in the indigenous populations of Russia European North].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134794
Source
Fiziol Cheloveka. 2011 Mar-Apr;37(2):66-70
Publication Type
Article
Author
N N Potolitsyna
E R Boiko
P. Orr
Source
Fiziol Cheloveka. 2011 Mar-Apr;37(2):66-70
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Calcifediol - blood
Cold Climate
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Ethnic Groups
Female
Humans
Lipid Metabolism
Lipids - blood
Male
Russia
Vitamin A - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood
Vitamin E - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of our research was to investigate the level of 25-OH vitamin D in blood plasma of indigenous inhabitants of Russia European North. The study showed that there was wide spreading of vitamin D deficiency among northerners especially in teenager. The significant reduction of 25-OH vitamin D3 was revealed in the inhabitants of Far North in March. It is shown that there is correlation of the vitamin D with total cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, high and low density lipoproteins and vitamin A and E.
PubMed ID
21542320 View in PubMed
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A rapid, highly discriminatory genotyping method for mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Manitoba, Canada

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284490
Source
Page 109 and page 194 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
A RAPID, HIGHLY DISCRIMINATORY GENO TYPING METHOD FOR MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS ISOLATES IN MANITOBA, CANADA 5. Christianson, J. Wolfe, P. Orr, M.K. Sharma Public Health Agency of Canada Objective: In order for any genotyping method to be highly effective in the clinical microbiology
  1 document  
Author
S. Christianson
J. Wolfe
P. Orr
M.K. Sharma
Author Affiliation
Public Health Agency of Canada
Source
Page 109 and page 194 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Posters. Chapter 2. Infectious Diseases and Sexual Health.
Part of Abstracts: Posters. Chapter 4. Genetics, Population Genetics and Birth Defects in the North.
Documents
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15 records – page 1 of 2.