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Acute injuries in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, and karate: analysis of national registry data.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213683
Source
BMJ. 1995 Dec 2;311(7018):1465-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2-1995
Author
U M Kujala
S. Taimela
I. Antti-Poika
S. Orava
R. Tuominen
P. Myllynen
Author Affiliation
Unit for Sports and Exercise Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Source
BMJ. 1995 Dec 2;311(7018):1465-8
Date
Dec-2-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Arm Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Athletic Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Basketball - injuries
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Hand Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Hockey - injuries
Humans
Leg Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Martial Arts - injuries
Soccer - injuries
Abstract
To determine the acute injury profile in each of six sports and compare the injury rates between the sports.
Analysis of national sports injury insurance registry data.
Finland during 1987-91.
621,691 person years of exposure among participants in soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, basketball, judo, or karate.
Acute sports injuries requiring medical treatment and reported to the insurance company on structured forms by the patients and their doctors.
54,186 sports injuries were recorded. Injury rates were low in athletes aged under 15, while 20-24 year olds had the highest rates. Differences in injury rates between the sports were minor in this adult age group. Overall injury rates were higher in sports entailing more frequent and powerful body contact. Each sport had a specific injury profile. Fractures and dental injuries were most common in ice hockey and karate and least frequent in volleyball. Knee injuries were the most common cause of permanent disability.
Based on the defined injury profiles in the different sports it is recommended that sports specific preventive measures should be employed to decrease the number of violent contacts between athletes, including improved game rules supported by careful refereeing. To prevent dental injuries the wearing of mouth guards should be encouraged, especially in ice hockey, karate, and basketball.
Notes
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Comment In: BMJ. 1996 Mar 30;312(7034):8448608301
Comment In: BMJ. 1996 Mar 30;312(7034):844-58608303
PubMed ID
8520333 View in PubMed
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An examination of whether human placental perfusion allows accurate prediction of placental drug transport: studies with diazepam.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63401
Source
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2002 Nov-Dec;48(3):131-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
P. Myllynen
K. Vähäkangas
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. paivi.k.myllynen@oulu.fi
Source
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2002 Nov-Dec;48(3):131-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anticonvulsants - blood - pharmacokinetics
Antipyrine - blood - pharmacokinetics
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Comparative Study
Diazepam - blood - pharmacokinetics
Female
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Perfusion
Placenta - metabolism
Pregnancy - blood
Reference Standards
Time Factors
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Presently, no well-validated predictive tools are available for human placental transfer. We studied the transplacental passage of diazepam (DZP) in a recirculating dual human placental perfusion and compared the data with in vivo clinical data from the literature. METHODS: Term placentas from healthy mothers without medication were used. The dual, recirculating perfusion technique was used. DZP (2 microg/ml, n = 4; 200 ng/ml, n = 3) and the reference compound antipyrine (100 microg/ml) were added into the maternal circulation simultaneously. The disappearance of drugs from the maternal circulation and appearance into the fetal circulation were followed every 15 min for 2 h. RESULTS: DZP was detectable in the fetal circulation within 15 min in all of the perfusions indicating rapid transfer. DZP concentrations in the maternal circulation were higher than in the fetal circulation throughout the perfusion with both initial concentrations. At the end of the perfusion, the feto-maternal ratio was 0.48 +/- 0.11 (mean +/- S.D.) and the transfer from the maternal to the fetal compartment 18.4 +/- 3.6% with 2 microg/ml of DZP and 0.55 +/- 0.10 and 20.5 +/- 3.1% with 200 ng/ml of DZP, respectively. DZP concentrations in the perfused area of the placenta were in average 2 times higher than in the maternal perfusate and 3.6 times higher than in the fetal perfusate. Total recovery of DZP from samples, perfusion fluid, and perfused tissue was 37.6 +/- 21%. DISCUSSION: Since animal studies in vivo do not accurately predict human placental transfer and it is problematic to study placental transfer of drugs in humans in vivo, the present human placental perfusion system could serve as one part of a test battery for fetotoxicity. However, although our earlier studies and those from the literature indicate a good correlation between in vivo and placental perfusion data, the present study shows this is not the case for all drugs.
PubMed ID
14986861 View in PubMed
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Environmental health - from exposure to biomarkers

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286393
Source
Page 342 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
ENVIRONMENTAL HEAL TH- FROM EXPOSURE TO BIOMARKERS A. Rautio 1 , P. Myllynen 2 , K. V.3h.3kangas 2 ' 3 1Centre for Arctic Medicine, Thule Institute, University of Oulu, 2 Department of Biosciences (Pharmacology and Toxicology), University of Oulu, 3Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
  1 document  
Author
A. Rautio
P. Myllynen
K. Vahakangas
Author Affiliation
Centre for Arctic Medicine, Thule Institute, University of Oulu
Department of Biosciences (Pharmacology and Toxicology), University of Oulu
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Kuopio, Finland
Source
Page 342 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Finland
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Notes
Part of Abstracts: Posters. Chapter 8. Food Security and Our Environments.
Documents
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Human placenta: a human organ for developmental toxicology research and biomonitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9239
Source
Placenta. 2005 May;26(5):361-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
P. Myllynen
M. Pasanen
O. Pelkonen
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, PO Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland. paivi.k.myllynen@oulu.fi
Source
Placenta. 2005 May;26(5):361-71
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anoxia - chemically induced - metabolism
Biological Transport, Active
Environmental monitoring
Female
Fetal Development - drug effects
Humans
Metabolic Detoxication, Drug
Models, Biological
Oxidative Stress
Placenta - drug effects - metabolism
Pregnancy
Xenobiotics - metabolism - pharmacokinetics - toxicity
Abstract
Pregnant mothers are exposed to a wide variety of foreign chemicals. This exposure is most commonly due to maternal medication, lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drug abuse, and alcohol consumption, or occupational and environmental sources. Foreign compounds may interfere with placental functions at many levels e.g. signaling, production and release of hormones and enzymes, transport of nutrients and waste products, implantation, cellular growth and maturation, and finally, at the terminal phase of placental life, i.e. delivery. Placental responses may also be due to pharmaco-/toxicodynamic responses to foreign chemicals, e.g. hypoxia. On the other hand, placental xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes can detoxify or activate foreign chemicals, and transporters either enhance or prevent cellular accumulation and transfer across the placenta. The understanding of what xenobiotics do to the placenta and what the placenta does to the xenobiotics should provide the basis for the use of placenta as a tool to investigate and predict some aspects of developmental toxicity. This review aims to give an update of the fate and behavior of xenobiotics in the placenta from the viewpoint of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Their response levels will be described according to gestational status and methods used. The effects of foreign chemicals on placental metabolizing enzymes will be discussed. Also, interactions in the transporter protein level will be covered. The role of the placenta in contributing to developmental effects and fetotoxicity will be examined. The toxicological effects of maternal medications, smoking, and environmental exposures (dioxins, pesticides) as well as some possibilities for biomonitoring will be highlighted.
PubMed ID
15850640 View in PubMed
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Quantitative estimation of mercury intake by toxicokinetic modelling based on total mercury levels in humans.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296985
Source
Environ Int. 2018 05; 114:1-11
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
05-2018
Author
K Abass
A Huusko
H K Knutsen
P Nieminen
P Myllynen
H M Meltzer
K Vahakangas
A Rautio
Author Affiliation
Arctic Health, Faculty of Medicine; and Thule Institute, University of Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: khaled.megahed@oulu.fi.
Source
Environ Int. 2018 05; 114:1-11
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Diet - statistics & numerical data
Eating
Humans
Mercury - blood - pharmacokinetics
Models, Biological
Norway
Seafood
Surveys and Questionnaires
Toxicokinetics
Abstract
Mercury is a toxic metal that can be disseminated into the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Human exposure to the metal stems mainly from food, and more particularly from the consumption of fish and other seafoods. Examining dietary exposure and measuring mercury levels in body tissues are two ways of estimating exposure to mercury. In this study, we utilized a modelling system consisting of three linear toxicokinetic models for describing the fate of methyl mercury, inorganic mercury, and metallic mercury in the body, in order to estimate daily intake of mercury as measured through total mercury concentrations in the blood. We then compared the results stemming from our modelling system to those of the detailed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) of the Norwegian Fish and Game (NFG) Study, a project that focused on dietary mercury exposure. The results indicate that toxicokinetic modelling based on blood levels gave higher daily intake values of mercury compared to those of the FFQ. Furthermore, the former had a wider range of estimates than the latter. The properties of the toxicokinetic model or limitations in the dietary exposure assessment could be posited as reasons for the differences between the respective methods. Moreover, the results may have been influenced by sources of mercury exposure that cannot be described as dietary, such as amalgam fillings.
PubMed ID
29455008 View in PubMed
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Return to work after posterolateral fusion with transpedicular instrumentation for spondylarthrosis of the lumbosacral spine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213433
Source
Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1996;85(1):63-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
H. Pihlajamäki
P. Myllynen
O. Böstman
Author Affiliation
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
Source
Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1996;85(1):63-6
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Disability Evaluation
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Lumbar Vertebrae - surgery
Male
Middle Aged
Postoperative Complications - rehabilitation
Rehabilitation, Vocational
Spinal Fusion - instrumentation - rehabilitation
Spondylitis, Ankylosing - surgery
Abstract
We reviewed 41 working-age adults with lumbosacral spondylarthrosis treated by posterolateral spinal fusion using transpedicular instrumentation. The fusion indication was a long-standing, intractable low-back and/or radiating pain, resistant to conservative treatment, without any radiological evidence or disc herniation or spinal stenosis. All patients were evaluated for their post-treatment employment status. The patients were followed up until they had either returned to work or received a permanent disability pension. Only 15 patients out of 41 returned to work after an average postoperative sick leave of seven months. A proper selection of patients is mandatory when this kind of resource-consuming spinal surgery is practised.
PubMed ID
8739936 View in PubMed
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Spinal cord injuries in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202795
Source
Int J Sports Med. 1999 Jan;20(1):64-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
J J Mölsä
Y. Tegner
H. Alaranta
P. Myllynen
U M Kujala
Author Affiliation
LIKES Research Center for Sports and Health Sciences, Jyväskylä, Finland. jmolsa@maila.jyu.fi
Source
Int J Sports Med. 1999 Jan;20(1):64-7
Date
Jan-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Finland - epidemiology
Head Protective Devices
Hockey - injuries
Humans
Incidence
Male
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Spinal Cord Injuries - epidemiology - etiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the cervical or thoracic region is one of the most catastrophic types of sport injuries. This study was designed to determine incidence and mechanisms of major SCI in ice hockey in Finland and Sweden from 1980 to 1996 in order to find possibilities for prevention. Retrospective analysis of injury occurrence were carried out. Medical case records were reviewed and injured players were interviewed to complete the data. From 1980 to 1996, there were 16 accidents involving spinal cord injury with permanent disability. All players were male. The mean age was 21.1 years (range = 14 to 33 yr). In 50% of the cases the mechanism was body checking from behind and a blow to the head from the boards. In 69% of the cases the vertebral injury was fracture or/and luxation between C5 and C7. The neurological endstate was tetraplegia/paresis in 10 cases and paraplegia/paresis of the lower extremities in 6 cases. Ice hockey is one of the most popular sports in Europe, and the number of participants is still increasing. The typical mechanism in SCI is body checking from behind, falling down and a head-first blow from the boards. These serious injuries may be prevented by changing the rules (banning body checking near the boards) with strict refereeing and education of trainers and players.
PubMed ID
10090466 View in PubMed
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Toxicokinetics of the food-toxin IQ in human placental perfusion is not affected by ABCG2 or xenobiotic metabolism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature96596
Source
Placenta. 2010 Jul;31(7):641-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
E. Immonen
M. Kummu
A. Petsalo
T. Pihlaja
L. Mathiesen
J K S Nielsen
L E Knudsen
K. Vähäkangas
P. Myllynen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Source
Placenta. 2010 Jul;31(7):641-8
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Metabolizing enzymes and transporters affect toxicokinetics of foreign compounds (e.g. drugs and carcinogens) in human placenta. The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) is a food-borne carcinogen being metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, especially by CYP1A1/2. IQ is also a substrate for ABCG2 transporter. Placental transfer of (14)C-IQ was evaluated in 4-6 h ex vivo human placental perfusions in Finland and Denmark. In Finland placentas were perfused with (14)C-IQ alone (0.5 microM, n = 6) or in combination with GF120918 (inhibitor of ABCG2, 1 microM, n = 6) or Ko143 (specific inhibitor of ABCG2, 2 microM, n = 4) to study the role of ABCG2 inhibition in transfer while in Denmark perfusions were performed with (14)C-IQ alone. Critical parameters (leak from fetal to maternal circulation, pH values, blood gases, glucose consumption, the production of hCG hormone and transport of antipyrine) were analyzed during the perfusions. (14)C-IQ on maternal and fetal sides was determined by liquid scintillation counting. In Finland IQ and its metabolites in final perfusates were determined also by LC/TOF-MS. ABCG2 expression and EROD activity (CYP1A1/2) were analyzed from perfused tissues. (14)C-IQ was easily transferred through the placenta from maternal to fetal side in both laboratories. Neither significant EROD activity nor IQ metabolites were found in placentas from non-smoking mothers. Inhibition of ABCG2 by GF120918 (FM-ratio of IQ 0.95) or Ko143 (FM-ratio of IQ 0.94) did not affect (14)C-IQ transfer (FM-ratio of IQ in IQ only perfusions 0.97), which indicates that placental ABCG2 does not have a significant role in protecting fetus from IQ.
PubMed ID
20570348 View in PubMed
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Transplacental passage of oxcarbazepine and its metabolites in vivo.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63715
Source
Epilepsia. 2001 Nov;42(11):1482-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2001
Author
P. Myllynen
P. Pienimäki
P. Jouppila
K. Vähäkangas
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. paivi.k.myllynen@oulu.fi
Source
Epilepsia. 2001 Nov;42(11):1482-5
Date
Nov-2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anticonvulsants - analysis - pharmacokinetics - therapeutic use
Carbamazepine - analogs & derivatives - analysis - metabolism - pharmacokinetics - therapeutic use
Epilepsy - drug therapy - metabolism
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry - drug effects - metabolism
Humans
Maternal-Fetal Exchange - physiology
Placenta - chemistry - drug effects - metabolism
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - drug therapy - metabolism
Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate human fetal exposure to oxcarbazepine (OCBZ) in vivo. METHODS: Transplacental passage and placental tissue concentrations of OCBZ and its metabolites were determined. Maternal venous blood, cord blood, and placental tissue samples from 12 mothers using OCBZ during pregnancy alone or in combination with other antiepileptic drugs were collected. Samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Maternal venous concentrations of OCBZ and its major metabolites were at same range as cord blood concentrations (OCBZ in maternal serum, 0.19 +/- 0.16 microg/ml, and in cord serum, 0.21 +/- 0.19 microg/ml; 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (10-OH-CBZ) in maternal serum, 5.69 +/- 2.49 microg/ml, and in cord serum, 5.23 +/- 1.44 microg/ml; 10,11-trans-dihydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (10,11-D) in maternal serum, 0.29 +/- 0.22 microg/ml, and in cord serum, 0.28 +/- 0.14 microg/ml). OCBZ (0.17 +/- 0.16 microg/g placental tissue), 10-OH-CBZ (3.49 +/- 1.34 microg/g placental tissue) and 10,11-D (0.25 +/- 0.11 microg/g placental tissue) were detected in the placental tissue. The amount of OCBZ detected from placental tissue was 0.01% of the daily dose. CONCLUSIONS: OCBZ, like other antiepileptic drugs, is transferred significantly through the placenta in humans.
PubMed ID
11879354 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.