The effects on blood lipids and blood pressure of a diet corresponding to present Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, i.e. less than 30% of energy from fat and with a fibre content exceeding 3 g/MJ, were studied in 18 men and 12 women (mean age, 24 years) under strict dietary control over 8 months. Blood sampling, blood pressure and body weight measurement were performed at four occasions on their habitual diet and once a month during the intervention period. An age-matched control group (17 men, 8 women) was followed with monthly measurements parallel to the intervention group. The habitual diets, assessed by 7-day records, showed an average fat content corresponding to 36% of energy. Initial levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol (X +/- SD) were 4.21 +/- 0.61 and 1.23 +/- 0.23 mmol/l for the men in the intervention group; 4.35 +/- 0.79 and 1.21 +/- 0.26 mmol/l for the male controls; 4.61 +/- 0.59 and 1.46 +/- 0.31 mmol/l for the women in the intervention group and 4.48 +/- 0.64 and 1.48 +/- 0.29 mmol/l for the female controls. Significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol throughout the experimental period were seen for both sexes in the intervention group. Total cholesterol fell 0.49 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.41-0.56) in the male subjects and 0.49 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.39-0.59) in the female subjects. The fall in HDL cholesterol was 0.16 mmol/l (95% C: 0.13-0.18) and 0.18 mmol/l (95% CI: 0.12-0.23), respectively. Total cholesterol changes were independent of initial values. All subjects were normotensive at the start of the study with an average blood pressure of 122/68 mmHg for men and 112/68 mmHg for the women. Systolic blood pressure dropped gradually and significantly in the male subjects of the intervention group. A minimum of 6 mmHg below initial values was noted after six months of dietary intervention. No significant changes in dietary intake and blood lipids were observed in the control group. Thus, changes of present dietary habits of young healthy Danish subjects to an intake in accordance with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 1989 will favourably affect suggested risk factors for disease.
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to quantify the impact of different dietary factors on the mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. METHODS: Relative risks and knowledge on the distribution of different dietary factors were used to estimate etiological fractions. RESULTS: It is estimated that an intake of fruit and vegetables and saturated fat as recommended would prevent 12 and 22%, respectively, of deaths from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. An intake of fish among those at high risk for ischaemic heart disease, would lead to a 26% lower mortality, while alcohol intake among abstainers would have no significant quantitative effect. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that changes in dietary habits according to current recommendations would have an impact on public health in Denmark.
A questionnaire survey of Danish hospitals showed that 70% of patients admitted for acute ischaemic heart disease were served the ordinary menu during their stay at the hospital. About 10% had a diabetic menu, while 20% had different kinds of lipid lowering diets. The ordinary menu contained 17 energy percent (E%) protein, 38 E% fat, and 46 E% carbohydrate. The amount of fibre was 3.1 g/MJ, the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S) was 0.4, and the total energy in a day's menu was 8.1 MJ. The ordinary high-fat hospital diets differ markedly from diets believed to be cardioprotective, contrast with the dietary counselling given during admission, and should be replaced by lipid lowering diets in most cases of acute ischaemic heart disease for educational and therapeutic reasons.
We served a low-fat (28% of energy) high-fibre (3.3 g/MJ) diet according to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (REC diet), and a high-fat diet (39% of energy) corresponding to the average Danish diet (DANE diet) to 21 healthy middle-aged individuals in a two times two weeks cross-over study. The REC diet resulted in lower serum concentrations of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (medians: 2.77 vs 3.04 mmol/l, p
We served a low-fat (28% of energy), high-fiber (3.3 g/MJ) diet according to Nordic nutrition recommendations (Rec diet), and a high-fat diet (39% of energy) corresponding to the average Danish diet (Dane diet) for periods of 2 wk in a randomized crossover study of 21 healthy middle-aged individuals. The Rec diet resulted in lower serum concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (medians: 2.77 vs 3.04 mmol/L, P
Rapeseed oil (RO), also known as canola oil, principally contains the unsaturated fatty acids 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 and may promote cardiometabolic health.
To investigate the effects on lipoprotein profile, factors of coagulation and insulin sensitivity of replacing a diet rich in saturated fat from dairy foods (DF diet) with a diet including RO-based fat (RO diet).
During a 2?3-week randomized, controlled, cross-over trial, 20 free-living hyperlipidaemic subjects were provided with isocaloric test diets that differed in fat composition alone. Blood lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic factors and insulin sensitivity (euglycaemic clamp) were determined before and after the dietary intervention.
All subjects completed the study, and compliance was high according to changes in serum fatty acids. The RO diet, but not the DF diet, reduced the levels of serum cholesterol (-17%), triglycerides (-20%) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-17%), cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (-21%), apolipoprotein (apo) B/apo A-I ratio (-4%) and factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc) (-5%) from baseline. These changes were significantly different between the diets (P=0.05 to P