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7 records – page 1 of 1.

Heart rate responses to real and simulated BA Hawk MK 51 flight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208099
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1997 Jul;68(7):601-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1997
Author
H. Ylönen
H. Lyytinen
T. Leino
J. Leppäluoto
P. Kuronen
Author Affiliation
University of Jyväskylä, Department of Psychology, Finland.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1997 Jul;68(7):601-5
Date
Jul-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Aircraft
Analysis of Variance
Cognition - physiology
Computer simulation
Cross-Sectional Studies
Finland
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Military Personnel - psychology
Practice (Psychology)
Psychomotor Performance - physiology
Psychophysiology
Stress, Psychological - physiopathology
Workload - psychology
Abstract
The effects of psychological workload on inflight heart rate were studied in five experienced (flight instructors) and five less experienced (cadets) military pilots of the Finnish Air Force (FAF).
The subjects performed the same flight mission twice; first with the BA Hawk MK 51 simulator with minimal G-forces and after that with the BA Hawk MK 51 jet trainer with Gz-forces below +2. The mission included: a) 2 min rest after seating; b) take-off; c) ILS approach in the minimum weather conditions (initial, intermediate and final approach); d) landing tour (visual approach); and e) landing. The heart rates were continuously measured using a small portable recorder developed at the University of Jyv?skyl?, Finland. The R-R intervals were stored and analyzed with an accuracy of 1 ms. The different phases of each flight were marked in the data by using codes given beforehand for each critical event.
The take-off resulted in a significant increase in the heart rate from the resting levels both in the cadets and the flight instructors in both planes. In the simulator the heart rate decreased during the initial approach and slightly increased after it during the intermediate approach. Thereafter the heart rate decreased during the landing tour which seemed to be the least psychologically demanding phase of the simulated flight. The heart rate increased again during the landing but did not exceed the heart rates measured during the take-off and the ILS-approach. There were no statistical differences between the groups. In the jet trainer no decrease in the heart rate could be observed immediately after the take-off, unlike in the case of the simulated flight. The inflight heart rate increased during the final approach, decreased during the landing tour and finally increased during the landing. According to the heart rate analysis the final approach was the most loaded phase of the real flight. The changes towards the phases of final approach and landing were greater among the flight instructors.
There were no statistically significant differences between the mean heart rates during the real and the simulated flight. It is suggested that the heart rate changes for most reflected the changes in cognitive workload.
PubMed ID
9215465 View in PubMed
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Low-altitude overflights of fighters and the risk of hearing loss.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201395
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 Jul;70(7):650-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
P. Kuronen
R. Pääkkönen
S. Savolainen
Author Affiliation
Finnish Air Force Headquarters, Tikkakoski.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 Jul;70(7):650-5
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acceleration
Aircraft
Altitude
Audiometry
Auditory Fatigue
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Female
Finland
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced - diagnosis - etiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Noise, Transportation - adverse effects
Risk factors
Speech Perception
Time Factors
Abstract
Much data are available on noise properties which cause hearing loss. There are not, however, reports on the effects of low-altitude overflight noise on the permanent threshold shift (PTS).
Low-altitude overflight noise generated by the Finnish Air Force's jet fighters and an advanced jet trainer was measured with flight distances varying from 50-310 m from the measurement point. The aircraft were always subsonic, velocities being usually 0.9 Mach or less. The measurements were undertaken because of two claims for the compensation of hearing loss caused by overflights of jet fighters on cross-country training missions.
Peak noise levels (LCpeak) varied from 109-150 dB depending on aircraft type and the use of afterburner. The 1-s single A-weighted exposure levels (ASEL) during these overflights were 95-135 dB which correspond to daily (8 h) exposure levels of 50-90 dB.
According to these results and the principles of noise evaluation, there should be no risk of permanent hearing loss when the distance to an overflying jet fighter is more than 200 m. However, we have received two claims, and the audiometric analyses of two subjects who had suffered hearing loss in one ear in Finland during the 1990s may indicate that there is very likely a connection between the incidents and the hearing losses.
PubMed ID
10417000 View in PubMed
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Muscle fatigue caused by repeated aerial combat maneuvering exercises.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49985
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 Jun;70(6):556-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1999
Author
J. Oksa
O. Hämäläinen
S. Rissanen
M. Salminen
P. Kuronen
Author Affiliation
Oulu Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Laboratory of Physiology, Finland.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 Jun;70(6):556-60
Date
Jun-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Muscles
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Back Pain - diagnosis - etiology - prevention & control
Electromyography
Exercise Therapy
Fatigue - diagnosis - etiology - prevention & control
Finland
Humans
Military Personnel
Monitoring, Physiologic
Muscle Weakness - complications - diagnosis - prevention & control
Neck Muscles
Occupational Diseases - diagnosis - etiology - prevention & control
Physical Endurance
Risk factors
War
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the development of in-flight muscular fatigue during repeated flights. HYPOTHESIS: This study was conducted to evaluate muscular fatigue in different upper body and neck muscles during repeated aerial combat maneuvering exercises. METHODS: Six pilots volunteered as test subjects. They performed one-to-one dog fight exercise three times (1 pilot, four times) in one day. During the flights, the pilots' electromyographic activity (EMG) was measured from the abdomen, back, neck and lateral neck. The mean muscular strain for each muscle was calculated. Before the first flight and after each flight, the maximal isometric strength of each muscle was measured. RESULTS: The results showed that maximal isometric strength between the first and last measurement decreased in the back, neck (p
PubMed ID
10373045 View in PubMed
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Muscle strain during aerial combat maneuvering exercise.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature50102
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1996 Dec;67(12):1138-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1996
Author
J. Oksa
O. Hämäläinen
S. Rissanen
J. Myllyniemi
P. Kuronen
Author Affiliation
Oulu Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Laboratory of Physiology, Finland.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1996 Dec;67(12):1138-43
Date
Dec-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdomen
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Back
Electromyography
Humans
Military Personnel
Muscles - physiology
Neck
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sprains and Strains - etiology
Thigh
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the in-flight muscular strain of fighter pilots. HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to measure fighter pilots' mean and peak muscular strain during aerial combat maneuvering exercises. The results obtained were compared against existing ergonomic recommendations. METHODS: Six pilots volunteered to serve as test subjects. Their mean age (+/- SD) was 28.5 +/- 5 yr, height 181 +/- 7 cm, and weight 75 +/- 10 kg. They performed one-to-one dog-fight exercises in the morning and in the afternoon. During the flights, the pilots' electromyographic activity (EMC) was measured from the thigh, abdomen, back, and lateral neck. The mean and peak muscular strain for each muscle was calculated as the percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). RESULTS: The results showed that the mean muscular strain was 5.2-19.8% MVC, the strain in the lateral neck being the highest. Peak muscular strain (over 50% MVC) occurred almost only during the encounters and usually in the lateral neck. Other muscles were subjected to fewer peak strain episodes; most of these occurred in the back. At least one peak strain episode exceeding 100% MVC was recorded for every muscle studied. The highest peak strain 257% MVC, was measured in the lateral neck. This peak strain episode caused an injury to the lateral neck area, and the flight mission was discontinued. CONCLUSIONS: The mean muscular strain measured in this study was rather low. However, the strain occurring in the lateral neck and the back exceeds the ergonomic recommendations for static work. Especially in the lateral neck, and to some extent in the back, peak strain occurs frequently, in a magnitude that is well above the maximal voluntary contraction; in these areas, the peak strain presents a potential risk of injury and negative health effects. The level and frequent occurrence of peak strain episodes means that fighter pilots' muscular strength and muscular endurance, especially in the neck and shoulder area, are subjected to demands clearly higher than those of the average population.
PubMed ID
8968477 View in PubMed
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Neuroendocrine responses to psychological workload of instrument flying in student pilots.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature10659
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 Jun;70(6):565-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1999
Author
T K Leino
J. Leppäluoto
A. Ruokonen
P. Kuronen
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 Jun;70(6):565-70
Date
Jun-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Aviation - education - instrumentation
Corticotropin - blood
Finland
Humans
Male
Mental Processes - physiology
Military Personnel - education - psychology
Neuropsychological Tests
Neurosecretory Systems - metabolism
Norepinephrine - blood
Prolactin - blood
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Stress, Psychological - blood - etiology - psychology
Students - psychology
Workload - psychology
beta-Endorphin - blood
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Information processing and stress tolerance are necessary features for instrument flying (IFR), especially among student pilots. Psychological workload of IFR flight may lead to stress reactions such as neuroendocrine activity. METHODS: Neuroendocrine responses to an IFR flight with Vinka piston-engined primary trainer were studied in 35 male volunteers who participated in the basic military flying course of the Finnish Air Force (FAF). The student pilots performed a 40-min IFR flight mission and a control session on land in randomized order between 11.00 h and 15.00 h. The IFR flight included 3 NDB approaches and was evaluated by flight instructors. Blood samples were collected 15 min before, 5 min and 60 min after the flight as well as control session, and. Plasma ACTH, beta3-endorphin (BE), cortisol, prolactin, adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) were measured. Psychological evaluations included psychomotor test (Wiener), Multi Coordination and Attention Test, ability tests and personality tests (CMPS and 16 PF). The overall psychological evaluation was made by an aviation psychologist. RESULTS: Plasma ACTH was significantly higher before and 5 min after the flight compared with control levels, but plasma BE increased significantly only before the flight. Plasma cortisol was significantly elevated before and 5 min after the flight. Plasma prolactin, NA and A increases were significant 5 min after the flight. High A levels after the flight correlated significantly with poor IFR flight performance as well as with poor psychomotor test results. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma prolactin and NA increases after the flight represented a direct type of stress reaction to the flight situation. The plasma BE response to IFR flight was an anticipatory stress reaction, but plasma ACTH, cortisol and A responses included both anticipatory and direct types of stress reactions. Psychological factors, flight performance and neuroendocrine responses to IFR flight appear to be associated with each other. Therefore, neuroendocrine reactions as a response to the psychological workload of military flying could be used for identifying stress tolerance in military pilots.
PubMed ID
10373047 View in PubMed
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Neuroendocrine responses to real and simulated BA Hawk MK 51 flight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature215938
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Feb;66(2):108-13
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1995
Author
T. Leino
J. Leppäluoto
P. Huttunen
A. Ruokonen
P. Kuronen
Author Affiliation
Department of Physiology, University of Oulu, Finland.
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Feb;66(2):108-13
Date
Feb-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Analysis of Variance
Atrial Natriuretic Factor - blood
Aviation
Catecholamines - blood
Environment, Controlled
Finland
Hormones - blood
Humans
Male
Military Personnel
Neuropeptides - blood
Stress, Psychological - blood
Workload - psychology
beta-Endorphin - blood
Abstract
The effects of psychological workload on the plasma levels of eight neuroendocrine hormones were studied in 5 undergraduate and 5 senior military pilots of the Finnish Air Force (FAF). All subjects performed the same short-term basic flight mission, which included the following: 1) start; 2) ILS-approach in minimum weather conditions; 3) visual approach; and 4) landing. The mission was performed twice: first with the BA Hawk MK 51 simulator with minimal G-forces and after that with a BA Hawk MK 51 jet trainer with Gz-forces below +2. Blood samples were collected 30 min before and 10 min after the mission and were measured for adrenaline, noradrenaline, ACTH, beta-endorphin, prolactin, vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and cortisol. The plasma levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, ACTH, beta-endorphin, and cortisol did not change significantly in response to simulated or real flight. Plasma prolactin levels increased significantly (p = 0.037) in all subjects after the mission performed with jet trainer, and the increase was especially great in cadets. However, the same mission performed with the simulator did not raise plasma prolactin levels. This finding suggests that the psychological workload in a flight simulator does not correspond to the psychological workload in a real jet trainer, at least not in basic flying. Plasma AVP increased significantly (p = 0.032) after the mission performed with the simulator in cadets; this increase can be described as a "first-time effect." Plasma ANP also increased significantly (p
PubMed ID
7726772 View in PubMed
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Simulated parachute descent in the cold: thermal responses and manual performance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature51674
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002 Nov;73(11):1100-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2002
Author
S. Rissanen
T. Mäkinen
H. Rintamäki
O. Aatsalo
P. Kuronen
Author Affiliation
Oulu Regional Institute of Occupational Health, Laboratory of Physiology, Finland. sirkka.rissanen@ttl.fi
Source
Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002 Nov;73(11):1100-5
Date
Nov-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Adult
Aerospace Medicine
Aviation
Body Temperature - physiology
Clothing
Cold
Fingers - physiology
Hand - physiology
Humans
Male
Military Medicine
Military Personnel
Skin Physiology
Task Performance and Analysis
Time Factors
Wind
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ejection from a fighter aircraft can expose the pilot to extreme cold and windy conditions. Knowledge of the effects of such conditions on thermal responses and performance of the pilot is scarce. HYPOTHESIS: It is expected that the temperature of bare skin and fingers may decrease to the level where health and/or performance are hampered. METHODS: Seven fighter pilots performed a simulated parachute descent (SPD) at ambient temperature (Ta) of -35 degrees C and wind velocity of 10 m x s(-1). The 8-min SPD was followed by a 60-min cold exposure (CE) at Ta of -20 degrees C. Flight garments with or without immersion suit were used. During SPD the subjects performed basic survival tasks. Rectal and skin temperatures were measured and manual performance was tested. RESULTS: Thermal responses did not significantly differ between the clothing ensembles. Mean skin temperature was 28 degrees C and 27 degrees C at the end of SPD and CE, respectively. The cheek temperature was 9 degrees C (range 3.2-13.8 degrees C) at the end of SPD. Finger skin temperature was 7 degrees C and 9 degrees C at the end of SPD and CE, respectively. The subjects could perform the defined tasks during SPD while manual performance was slightly impaired during CE. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects could tolerate the 8-min SPD and the following CE in the studied conditions without a loss of vital performance in basic survival actions. However, the risk of frostbite on the uncovered skin area as well as numbness of the fingers may jeopardize pilots' health and performance during parachuting.
PubMed ID
12433234 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.