During the period 1980-1986, the Housekeeping Committees of the Danish Rural Institute carried out individual investigations of the diets of 513 women aged 23-50 years. Out of these, 124 were in the age group 40-50 years and this group was selected for health investigation. A Danish version of the Cornell Medical Index questionnaire with 138 enquiries about current and previous health conditions was sent to the 108 women who agreed to participate. All of these were visited in their homes by a doctor who reviewed the replies to the questionnaire and collected supplementary information for use in the diagnostic history. Only few cases of diseases of civilization were found and there were no cases of cancer. The current state of health was assessed summarily on the basis of the number of affirmative replies in the questionnaire. A statistical connection was found between the state of health and the combination of the fat-energy percentage and the vegetable roughage in the diet.