This exploratory analysis examines relationships between employment-specific cardiovascular mortality and certain spatially-based potential risk factors. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) are mapped on the basis of non-metropolitan primary and secondary employment basins of Quebec. In order to control for geographical anomalies, the data are broken down into three spatial grids: employment basins with the employment poles, employment basins without the employment poles and the employment poles (municipalities) taken alone. This cartography suggests a certain number of cardiovascular disease-prone employment areas in Quebec. Linkage analysis and principal components analysis are used to simplify and clarify the complex relationships that exist among selected independent variables (potential risk factors) and multiple regression analysis is used to identify the functional relationships between these employment, geographic and demographic variables and the study's dependent variable (ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular mortality) in the form of standard mortality ratios (SMRs). Cardiovascular mortality (SMRs) are found to be related negatively to an employment age-factor and, in the case of women, negatively to agricultural employment, marginally and positively to pulp and paper employment. It would appear that outside the very large cities in areas of primary and industrial employment, men are at greater risk of cardiovascular mortality during their working lives than those who are over the age of 65. Although it was not possible to establish strong positive links between most employment sectors and cardiovascular mortality, it is possible to conclude that there is a negative association for men between textile employment and cerebrovascular mortality; that in the case of women, those who work in agriculture are less at risk than women who are working in industrial employment. There is also some statistical evidence that there is an association between women in the pulp and paper industry and cardiovascular risk levels. This research provides some clues as to the need to investigate certain areas of employment that may be creating unnecessary risks to health, especially in the case of female workers.
The cultural setting of the isolated Cree Indian and Inuit communities is described and measures of their health examined. Questionnaires were employed to consider both epidemiological and socio-cultural facets and physical examination evaluated serological indicators of nutritional status. Changes of lifestyle toward store purchased food and a lessened reliance on hunting and fishing along with the non-native nature of the health services available seem to be leading to heart conditions, hypertension and diabetes all of which give cause for concern.
We studied all traffic accidents to pedestrians under age 15 which occurred on the Island of Montreal during an eighteen months period. Data were collected from eleven hospitals and completed with accident police records. A spatial quadrat analysis, a Comparative Accident Index, and a comparative analysis of the means of different socio-ecological variables between high and low risk accident areas revealed interesting patterns. The location of traffic accidents is not random but rather presents a particular spatial structure. High risk zones are characterized by dense population, fast-moving traffic, and the absence of parks. Accidents often take place on two-way streets, far from traffic lights, on dry surfaces, in good weather, and with good visibility. The socio-economic status of the victim's family as measured by education, income, and unemployment, tends to be low. More boys than girls are victims. Children are often injured while getting out of a car or crossing unconventionally.