The aim of this study was to analyse infant mortality among infants born extremely preterm in relation to mode of delivery, maternal diagnosis, and different institutional policies.
We conducted a national tertiary health care center study using Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR) data from 1990 to 2002, to examine the 2,094 live births of infants at 23+0 to 27+6 weeks gestation. We assessed the association between mode of delivery, gestational age (GA), calendar year, maternal condition, and institutional policies on infant mortality outcome.
At 23-25 weeks, 38% of infants (range: 34-69%) were delivered by cesarean section (CS), while at 26-27 weeks, 66% (59-80%) were delivered by CS. The CS rate for fetal or maternal indications was 98% in cases of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, 42% for premature rupture of membranes (PROM), 68% for hemorrhage, 76% for PROM+hemorrhage, 56% for breech presentation, and 30% for preterm vertex with no other complications. After cases of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were excluded, vaginal delivery was associated with a small increase of risk for infant death. Vaginal delivery was associated with a significantly increased risk for infant death in breech presentations and multiple births, while vaginal delivery posed a non-significant risk increase for PROM and hemorrhage. For preterm vertex without any other complications, 4 out of 5 infants were delivered vaginally without any risk increase.
This study reports high CS rates for very preterm births at Swedish hospitals. In performing CS for very preterm infants, this study suggests a survival advantage for certain maternal conditions, but not for preterm labor with a vertex presentation without other obstetrical complications.
Placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) and germ cell alkaline phosphatase (GCAP) are controlled by closely linked genes on chromosome 2q34-q37. In previous investigations, associations have been found between PLAP types and spontaneous abortion. In this study, PLAP and GCAP RFLPs and haplotypes were found to show highly significant associations with spontaneous abortions in the Finnish and Swedish populations. However, different associations were found in the Finnish and Swedish populations. The Finnish abortions were associated with the GCAP allele PstI(b) 2 and the Swedish abortions with the PLAP allele PstI(a) 2. A possible mechanism behind the associations may therefore be linkage disequilibria with deleterious alleles within or close to the alkaline phosphatase gene complex.
AIM: To determine major neonatal morbidity in surviving infants born at 23-25 weeks, and to identify maternal and infant factors associated with major morbidity. METHODS: The medical records of 224 infants who were delivered at two tertiary care centres in 1992-1998 were reviewed retrospectively. At these centres, policies of active perinatal and neonatal management were universally applied. Of the 213 liveborn infants, 140 (66%) survived to discharge. Data were analysed by gestational age and considered in three time periods. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with morbidity. RESULTS: Of the survivors, 6% had intraventricular haemorrhage grade > or = 3 (severe IVH) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), 15% retinopathy of prematurity > or = stage 3 (severe ROP) and 36% bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). On logistic regression analysis, severe IVH or PVL was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, OR: 1.53 per 1-wk increment in duration; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-2.33). Severe ROP was associated with the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (OR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.11-9.90) and birth in time period 3 versus time periods 1 and 2 combined (OR: 6.28; 95% CI: 2.10-18.74). BPD was associated with duration of mechanical ventilation (OR: 2.71 per 1-wk increment in duration; 95% CI: 1.76-4.18) and with the presence of any obstetric complication (OR: 2.67; 95% CI: 1.07-6.65). Gestational age and birthweight were not associated with major morbidity. Of all survivors, 81% were discharged home without severe IVH, PVL or severe ROP. CONCLUSIONS: Increased survival as a result of active perinatal and neonatal management was associated with favourable morbidity rates compared with those in recent studies. Among survivors born at 23-25 weeks, neither gestational age nor birthweight was a significant determinant of major morbidity.
AIMS: To provide descriptive data on women who delivered at 23-25 wk of gestation, and to relate foetal and neonatal outcomes to maternal factors, obstetric management and the principal reasons for preterm birth. METHODS: Medical records of all women who had delivered in two tertiary care centres in 1992-1998 were reviewed. At the two centres, policies of active perinatal and neonatal management were universally applied. Logistic regression models were used to identify prenatal factors associated with survival. RESULTS: Of 197 women who delivered at 23-25 wk, 65% had experienced a previous miscarriage, 15% a previous stillbirth and 12% a neonatal death. The current pregnancy was the result of artificial reproduction in 13% of the women. In 71%, the pregnancy was complicated either by pre-eclampsia, chorioamnionitis, placental abruption or premature rupture of membranes. Antenatal steroids were given in 63%. Delivery was by caesarean section in 47%. The reasons for preterm birth were idiopathic preterm labour in 36%, premature rupture of membranes in 41% and physician-indicated deliveries in 23% of the mothers. Demographic details, use of antenatal steroids, caesarean section delivery and birthweight differed between mothers depending on the reason for preterm delivery. Of 224 infants, 5% were stillbirths and 63% survived to discharge. On multivariate logistic regression analysis comprising prenatally known variables, reasons for preterm birth were not associated with survival. Advanced gestational duration (OR: 2.43 per wk; 95% CI: 1.59-3.74), administration of any antenatal steroids (OR: 2.21; 95% Cl: 1.14-4.28) and intrauterine referral from a peripheral hospital (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.5-5.73) were associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Women who deliver at 23-25 wk comprise a risk group characterized by a high risk of reproductive failure and pregnancy complications. Survival rates were similar regardless of the reason for preterm birth. Policies of active perinatal management virtually eliminated intrapartum stillbirths.
AIM: To determine neonatal survival rates based on both foetal (stillborn) and neonatal deaths among infants delivered at 23-25 wk, and to identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with survival. METHODS: The medical records of 224 infants who were delivered in two tertiary care centres in 1992-1998 were reviewed retrospectively. At these centres, policies of active perinatal and neonatal management were universally applied. Data were analysed by gestational age groups and considered in three time periods. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with survival. RESULTS: The rate of foetal death was 5%. Of infants born alive, 63% survived to discharge. Survival rates including foetal deaths in the denominator at 23, 24 and 25 wk were 37%, 61% and 74%, respectively, and survival rates excluding foetal deaths were 43%, 63% and 77%, respectively. Of infants born with 1-min Apgar scores of 0-1, 43% survived. In the total cohort, survival rates including foetal deaths in the denominator increased from 52% in time period 1 to 61% in time period 2 and 74% in time period 3 (p
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to study the relationship between snoring and pregnancy-induced hypertension and growth retardation of the fetus. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional, consecutive case series. SETTING: The Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Umeâ, Sweden. Participants and measurements: On the day of delivery, 502 women with singleton pregnancies completed a questionnaire about snoring, witnessed sleep apneas, and daytime fatigue. Data concerning medical complications were taken from the women's casebooks. RESULTS: During the last week of pregnancy, 23% of the women reported snoring every night. Only 4% reported snoring before becoming pregnant. Hypertension developed in 14% of snoring women, compared with 6% of nonsnorers (p
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess perinatal risk factors and the survival of the very preterm infant in comparison with birth beyond 32nd birthweek, as well as health care utilization by mothers and infants in the Northern Health Region of Sweden. DESIGN: A population-based study was designed of all children (66,646) born in the Northern Health Region of Sweden during 1991-1996 and registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. METHODS: Maternal and perinatal factors of infants born very preterm, that is, at