Report a nationwide epidemic of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O103:H25 causing hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) in children.
Description of clinical presentation, complications and outcome in a nationwide outbreak.
Ten children (median age 4.3 years) developed HUS during the outbreak. One of these was presumed to be a part of the outbreak without microbiological proof. Eight of the patients were oligoanuric and in need of dialysis. Median need for dialysis was 15 days; one girl did not regain renal function and received a kidney transplant. Four patients had seizures and/or reduced consciousness. Cerebral oedema and herniation caused the death of a 4-year-old boy. Two patients developed necrosis of colon with perforation and one of them developed non-autoimmune diabetes.
This outbreak of STEC was characterized by a high incidence of HUS among the infected children, and many developed severe renal disease and extrarenal complications. A likely explanation is that the O103:H25 (eae and stx2-positive) strain was highly pathogen, and we suggest that this serotype should be looked for in patients with HUS caused by STEC, especially in severe forms or outbreaks.
Major improvements have taken place in the development of child restraint systems and in-car safety in general, but motor vehicle accidents remain the leading cause of death and disability in children. An interdisciplinary study was therefore performed to investigate the injury mechanisms in car collisions involving children.
Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) resulting in death or serious injuries to the drivers or their passengers in the southeastern part of Norway in the period 2007-2009 were included in the study if children less than 16 years of age were passengers. An investigation team examined the crash scene within 24 h of the accident. The internal and external environment of the vehicle was investigated, with particular focus on safety equipment and registration of child occupant contact points. Information was collected from witnesses, crash victims, the police, road authority reports, and medical records. Clinical or postmortem examinations were performed on the child occupants.
Fifteen high-impact car crashes involving 27 child occupants were investigated: 7 children died (median [range] age 8 (0-15) years), 8 were severely injured (8 [5-13] years), and 12 sustained minor or no injuries (3.5 [0-14] years). Fourteen out of 15 fatalities or severe injuries (MAIS =3) were found to be due to various safety errors: harness straps or seat belts incorrectly routed (5/15) or poorly adjusted (4/15), unstrapped luggage (4/15), or technical errors (1/15). All 7 of the fatally injured children died at the crash scene, and 6 died due to head/upper neck trauma. No safety errors were found among the 12 children with either minor or no injuries. No association was found between the instantaneous change in velocity (?V) and the injury severity.
The risk of child passengers being severely or fatally injured in MVCs is significantly higher when they are incorrectly restrained or exposed to unsecured heavy luggage. Appropriate crash investigations may provide important information regarding the injury mechanisms, which will be necessary for the implementation of preventive measures to reduce future fatalities.
Scandinavian countries face common challenges in trauma care. It has been suggested that Scandinavian trauma system development is immature compared to that of other regions. We wanted to assess the current status of Scandinavian trauma management and system development.
An extensive search of the Medline/Pubmed, EMBASE and SweMed+ databases was conducted. Wide coverage was prioritized over systematic search strategies. Scandinavian publications from the last decade pertaining to trauma epidemiology, trauma systems and early trauma management were included.
The incidence of severe injury ranged from 30 to 52 per 100,000 inhabitants annually, with about 90% due to blunt trauma. Parts of Scandinavia are sparsely populated with long pre-hospital distances. In accordance with other European countries, pre-hospital physicians are widely employed and studies indicate that this practice imparts a survival benefit to trauma patients. More than 200 Scandinavian hospitals receive injured patients, increasingly via multidisciplinary trauma teams. Challenges remain concerning pre-hospital identification of the severely injured. Improved triage allows for a better match between patient needs and the level of resources available. Trauma management is threatened by the increasing sub-specialisation of professions and institutions. Scandinavian research is leading the development of team- and simulation-based trauma training. Several pan-Scandinavian efforts have facilitated research and provided guidelines for clinical management.
Scandinavian trauma research is characterised by an active collaboration across countries. The current challenges require a focus on the role of traumatology within an increasingly fragmented health care system. Regional networks of predictable and accountable pre- and in-hospital resources are needed for efficient trauma systems. Successful development requires both novel research and scientific assessment of imported principles of trauma care.
Non-operative management of splenic injuries has become the treatment of choice in hemodynamically stable patients over the last decades. The aim of the study is to describe the incidence, initial treatment and early outcome of patients with splenic injuries on a national level.
All hospitals in Norway admitting trauma patients were invited to participate in the study. The study period was January through December 2013. The hospitals delivered anonymous data on primarily admitted patients with splenic injury.
Three of the four regional trauma centers and 26 of the remaining 33 acute care hospitals delivered data on a total of 151 patients with splenic injury indicating an incidence of 4 splenic injuries per 100,000 inhabitants/year, and a median of 4 splenic injuries per hospital per year. A total of 128 (85%) patients were successfully treated non-operatively including 20 patients who underwent an angiographic procedure. The remaining 23 (15%) patients underwent open splenectomy or spleen-preserving surgery.
Most patients with splenic injuries are managed non-operatively. Despite the low number of splenic injuries per hospital, the results indicate satisfactory outcome on a national level.