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Antidiphtheria antibody responses in patients and carriers of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in the Arkhangelsk region of Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature168906
Source
Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006 Jun;13(6):627-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
Elena Danilova
Pål A Jenum
Vegard Skogen
Valentin F Pilnikov
Haakon Sjursen
Author Affiliation
Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Source
Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006 Jun;13(6):627-32
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Bacterial - therapeutic use
Carrier State - epidemiology - immunology - microbiology - therapy
Child
Child, Preschool
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Diphtheria - epidemiology - immunology - microbiology - therapy
Diphtheria Toxin - immunology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay - methods
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Retrospective Studies
Russia - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Diphtheria is under control in industrialized countries. However, single cases and outbreaks still occur and the disease is not completely understood. Forty-three individuals suspected of having diphtheria who were referred to the Infectious Disease Hospital of Arkhangelsk from December 1994 to March 1995 were included in this study. Fifteen patients were diagnosed as having diphtheria and received equine hyperimmune antidiphtheria toxin antiserum, and 28 were diagnosed as carriers, 12 with nondiphtherial tonsillitis or pharyngitis and 16 without symptoms. Serum samples were obtained on admission and during the course of the disease or during follow-up of carrier status. Samples were analyzed for antibodies against diphtheria toxin with both an in vitro neutralization test (NT) and a human-specific enzyme immunoassay. All of the cases but one were confirmed by a positive culture. Twelve patients had pharyngeal diphtheria, and three had combined laryngeal and pharyngeal disease. Half of the patients had life-threatening disease, and one died. On admission, the median antibody titers measured with the NT were 0.085 IU/ml for the patients, 5.12 IU/ml for the symptomatic carriers, and 10.24 IU/ml for the healthy carriers. All of the diphtheria patients but one and nine of the carriers (six symptomatic and three healthy) had increased antibody levels during the first 7 to 10 days after admission. No obvious correlation was revealed between the antibody level or its kinetics and the course of the disease. Antibody levels on admission of >1 IU/ml were associated with a low risk of diphtheria.
Notes
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PubMed ID
16760319 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 Oct 9;123(19):2705-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-9-2003
Author
Bård Reiakvam Kittang
Julia Chelsom
Pål A Jenum
Wenche Sletbakk Vie
Øystein Wendelbo
Author Affiliation
Medisinsk klinikk, Haraldsplass Diakonale Sykehus, Bergen. baki@haraldsplass.no
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 Oct 9;123(19):2705-7
Date
Oct-9-2003
Language
Norwegian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Brucellosis - diagnosis - drug therapy - epidemiology
Emigration and Immigration
Female
Humans
Norway - epidemiology - ethnology
Travel
Zoonoses - epidemiology
Abstract
Brucellosis is a rare infectious disease in Norway.
We present a patient admitted to the department of medicine at Haraldsplass Hospital, Bergen and give a review of the epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of Brucellosis.
The clinical picture of Brucellosis is often non-specific, with swings in fever, general malaise and myalgia. Complications such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis and coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) infection occur in rare cases. The diagnosis is established by detection of Brucella species in blood cultures or tissue aspirate. Brucella is often difficult to isolate, but the available serological tests are highly sensitive and specific. The infection is treated with long-term administration of a combination of two appropriate antibiotic drugs. Surgery may be necessary in case of serious complications. If adequately treated, Brucellosis has a good overall prognosis.
PubMed ID
14600740 View in PubMed
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A comparison of extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing Escherichia coli from clinical, recreational water and wastewater samples associated in time and location.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286839
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186576
Publication Type
Article
Date
2017
Author
Silje B Jørgensen
Arne V Søraas
Lotte S Arnesen
Truls M Leegaard
Arnfinn Sundsfjord
Pål A Jenum
Source
PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0186576
Date
2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bathing Beaches
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Epidemiological Monitoring
Escherichia coli - drug effects - genetics - growth & development - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Fresh Water - microbiology
Gene Expression
Genome, Bacterial
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Norway - epidemiology
Recreation
Urinary Tract Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Waste Water - microbiology
Water Microbiology
beta-Lactamases - genetics
Abstract
Extended spectrum ß-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) are excreted via effluents and sewage into the environment where they can re-contaminate humans and animals. The aim of this observational study was to detect and quantify ESBL-EC in recreational water and wastewater, and perform a genetic and phenotypic comparative analysis of the environmental strains with geographically associated human urinary ESBL-EC. Recreational fresh- and saltwater samples from four different beaches and wastewater samples from a nearby sewage plant were filtered and cultured on differential and ESBL-selective media. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing and multi-locus variable number of tandem repeats assay (MLVA), selected ESBL-EC strains from recreational water were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS) and compared to wastewater and human urine isolates from people living in the same area. We detected ESBL-EC in recreational water samples on 8/20 occasions (40%), representing all sites. The ratio of ESBL-EC to total number of E. coli colony forming units varied from 0 to 3.8%. ESBL-EC were present in all wastewater samples in ratios of 0.56-0.75%. ST131 was most prevalent in urine and wastewater samples, while ST10 dominated in water samples. Eight STs and identical ESBL-EC MLVA-types were detected in all compartments. Clinical ESBL-EC isolates were more likely to be multidrug-resistant (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
29040337 View in PubMed
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Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia and diagnostic yields of microbiological methods: a 3-year prospective study in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268736
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:64
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jan C Holter
Fredrik Müller
Ola Bjørang
Helvi H Samdal
Jon B Marthinsen
Pål A Jenum
Thor Ueland
Stig S Frøland
Pål Aukrust
Einar Husebye
Lars Heggelund
Source
BMC Infect Dis. 2015;15:64
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Coinfection
Community-Acquired Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - virology
Female
Humans
Male
Microbiological Techniques - methods
Middle Aged
Mycoplasma pneumoniae - isolation & purification
Norway - epidemiology
Pneumonia, Bacterial - diagnosis - epidemiology - microbiology - virology
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Young Adult
Abstract
Despite recent advances in microbiological techniques, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still not well described. We applied polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional methods to describe etiology of CAP in hospitalized adults and evaluated their respective diagnostic yields.
267 CAP patients were enrolled consecutively over our 3-year prospective study. Conventional methods (i.e., bacterial cultures, urinary antigen assays, serology) were combined with nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swab samples analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae, and by real-time PCR for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis and 12 types of respiratory viruses.
Etiology was established in 167 (63%) patients with 69 (26%) patients having =1 copathogen. There were 75 (28%) pure bacterial and 41 (15%) pure viral infections, and 51 (19%) viral-bacterial coinfections, resulting in 126 (47%) patients with bacterial and 92 (34%) patients with viral etiology. S. pneumoniae (30%), influenza (15%) and rhinovirus (12%) were most commonly identified, typically with =1 copathogen. During winter and spring, viruses were detected more frequently (45%, P=.01) and usually in combination with bacteria (39%). PCR improved diagnostic yield by 8% in 64 cases with complete sampling (and by 15% in all patients); 5% for detection of bacteria; 19% for viruses (P=.04); and 16% for detection of =1 copathogen. Etiology was established in 79% of 43 antibiotic-naive patients with complete sampling. S. pneumoniae qPCR positive rate was significantly higher for OP swab compared to NP swab (P
Notes
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PubMed ID
25887603 View in PubMed
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First environmental sample containing plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli detected in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285493
Source
APMIS. 2017 Sep;125(9):822-825
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Silje Bakken Jørgensen
Arne Søraas
Lotte Stenfors Arnesen
Truls Leegaard
Arnfinn Sundsfjord
Pål A Jenum
Source
APMIS. 2017 Sep;125(9):822-825
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Colistin - pharmacology
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial - genetics
Escherichia coli - drug effects - enzymology - genetics - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Proteins - genetics
Genome, Bacterial - genetics
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Norway
Plasmids - genetics
beta-Lactamases - biosynthesis - genetics
Abstract
We hereby report the detection of the plasmid borne mcr-1 gene conferring colistin resistance in an extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli ST10 strain retrieved from seawater at a public beach in Norway. The sample was collected in September 2010 and was investigated by whole-genome sequencing in 2016. This report illustrates that E. coli strains carrying plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes have also reached areas where this drug is hardly used at all. Surveillance of colistin resistance in environmental, veterinary, and human strains is warranted also in countries where colistin resistance is rare in clinical settings.
PubMed ID
28640456 View in PubMed
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Herpes simplex virus type-2 infection in pregnancy: no risk of fetal death: results from a nested case-control study within 35,940 women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63616
Source
BJOG. 2002 Sep;109(9):1030-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2002
Author
Anne Eskild
Stig Jeansson
Babill Stray-Pedersen
Pål A Jenum
Author Affiliation
Section of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
Source
BJOG. 2002 Sep;109(9):1030-5
Date
Sep-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Cohort Studies
Female
Fetal Death - epidemiology - virology
Gestational Age
Herpes Simplex - complications - epidemiology
Herpesvirus 2, Human
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology - virology
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association of fetal death with herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) antibody status during pregnancy: 1. presence of antibodies in first trimester; 2. appearance of antibodies (incident infection); 3. increase in antibody titre; and 4. loss of antibodies. DESIGN: Prospective study. POPULATION: The source population was a cohort of 35,940 pregnant women in Norway. METHODS: Nested case-control study within the cohort. Cases were all women in the study population who experienced a fetal death after the 16th weeks of gestation (n = 281), and controls were 961 randomly selected women with a live born child. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: HSV-2 antibody status. RESULTS: Twenty-nine percent (82/281) of women with a fetal death and 27% (256/961) of the controls had of HSV-2 antibodies present in the first trimester (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.5). HSV-2 antibodies appeared in 2% (3/136) of initially seronegative cases and 3% (16/623) of the controls during pregnancy (odds ratio 0.9, 95% CI 0.2-3.0). An increase in HSV-2 antibodies occurred in 4% (2/55) of initially seropositive cases and 7% (16/231) of the controls (odds ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.1-2.3). Loss of HSV-2 antibodies in initially seropositive women was not associated with fetal death, 42% (23/55) of the cases and 45% (104/231) of the controls seroreverted (odds ratio 0.8, 95% CI 0.5-1.6). Differences in follow up time, age and parity were controlled and did not influence the comparisons between cases and controls. CONCLUSION: This study provides no evidence of an association between HSV-2 infection during pregnancy and fetal death.
PubMed ID
12269678 View in PubMed
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Management of suspected primary Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Norway: twenty years of experience of amniocentesis in a low-prevalence population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290084
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 26; 17(1):127
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
04-26-2017
Author
Gry Findal
Anne Helbig
Guttorm Haugen
Pål A Jenum
Babill Stray-Pedersen
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, Norway. gryfi@medisin.uio.no.
Source
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2017 04 26; 17(1):127
Date
04-26-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Abortion, Spontaneous - etiology
Adult
Amniocentesis - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Maternal Serum Screening Tests - methods
Norway
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic - diagnosis
Prenatal Diagnosis - adverse effects - methods
Retrospective Studies
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis
Unnecessary Procedures - adverse effects - methods
Abstract
Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy may pose a threat to the fetus. Women infected prior to conception are unlikely to transmit the parasite to the fetus. If maternal serology indicates a possible primary infection, amniocentesis for toxoplasma PCR analysis is performed and antiparasitic treatment given. However, discriminating between primary and latent infection is challenging and unnecessary amniocenteses may occur. Procedure-related fetal loss after amniocentesis is of concern. The aim of the present study was to determine whether amniocentesis is performed on the correct patients and whether the procedure is safe for this indication.
Retrospective study analysing data from all singleton pregnancies (n?=?346) at Oslo University Hospital undergoing amniocentesis due to suspected maternal primary toxoplasma infection during 1993-2013. Maternal, neonatal and infant data were obtained from clinical hospital records, laboratory records and pregnancy charts. All serum samples were analysed at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health or at the Toxoplasma Reference Laboratory at Oslo University Hospital. The amniocenteses were performed at Oslo University Hospital by experienced personnel. Time of maternal infection was evaluated retrospectively based on serology results.
50% (173) of the women were infected before pregnancy, 23% (80) possibly in pregnancy and 27% (93) were certainly infected during pregnancy. Forty-nine (14%) women seroconverted, 42 (12%) had IgG antibody increase and 255 (74%) women had IgM positivity and low IgG avidity/high dye test titre. Fifteen offspring were infected with toxoplasma, one of them with negative PCR in the amniotic fluid. Median gestational age at amniocentesis was 16.7 gestational weeks (GWs) (Q1?=?15, Q3?=?22), with median sample volume 4 ml (Q1?=?3, Q3?=?7). Two miscarriages occurred 4 weeks after the procedure, both performed in GW 13. One of these had severe fetal toxoplasma infection.
Half of our study population were infected before pregnancy. In order to reduce the unnecessary amniocenteses we advise confirmatory serology 3 weeks after a suspect result and suggest that the serology is interpreted by dedicated multidisciplinary staff. Amniocentesis is safe and useful as a diagnostic procedure in diagnosing congenital toxoplasma infection when performed after 15 GW.
Notes
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PubMed ID
28441952 View in PubMed
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Maternal antibodies against cytomegalovirus in pregnancy and the risk of fetal death and low birth weight.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29399
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Nov;84(11):1035-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
Anne Eskild
Pål A Jenum
Anne-Lise Bruu
Author Affiliation
Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Nydalen, Norway. anne.eskild@fhi.no
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Nov;84(11):1035-41
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Birth weight
Case-Control Studies
Cytomegalovirus - immunology
Cytomegalovirus Infections - complications - transmission
Disease Transmission, Vertical
Female
Fetal Death - epidemiology - virology
Gestational Age
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - blood
Immunoglobulin M - blood
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - epidemiology - virology
Pregnancy outcome
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract
BACKGROUND. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody status in pregnancy on the risk of fetal death and of low birth weight. METHODS. The study of fetal death risk was a nested case-control study. Cases were all women within a cohort of 35,940 pregnant women in Norway 1992--94, who experienced fetal death after 16th week of gestation (n=281). Controls were 957 randomly selected women with live born children. Both groups were identified through linkage to the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. The risk of low birth weight was studied in the live born children. RESULTS. Seventy-two percent (203/281) of the cases and 69% (662/957) of the controls had CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the first trimester (P=0.3). 0.4% (1/281) of the cases and 0.7% (7/957) had CMV IgM antibodies in the first trimester (P=0.7). Among 322 initially CMV antibody-negative women, 11% (6/55) of the cases and 9% (24/267) of the controls had occurrence of CMV IgG and/or IgM antibodies (P=0.7) during pregnancy. Also, after control for maternal age, parity, and follow-up time, no association between CMV antibodies and fetal death was found. CMV antibody status was not associated with low birth weight. CONCLUSIONS. This study does not support a causal relation between CMV infection in pregnancy and fetal death or low birth weight.
PubMed ID
16232169 View in PubMed
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Maternal Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor I and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 During Pregnancy and Birth Weight of Offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101004
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun 2;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2-2011
Author
Bjørn Olav Asvold
Anne Eskild
Pål A Jenum
Lars J Vatten
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Jun 2;
Date
Jun-2-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Maternal concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) may influence fetal growth. Offspring birth weight related to maternal IGF-I and IGFBP-1 measured in pregnancy was studied in 368 randomly selected women without preeclampsia who delivered a singleton liveborn child in Norway between 1992 and 1994. Maternal IGF-I concentrations were not consistently associated with birth weight, but a 1-standard deviation stronger increase in IGF-I from the first to second trimester was associated with an 82-g (95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 153) higher birth weight. IGFBP-1 concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight: Birth weight was 71 g (95% CI: 14, 128) lower per 1-standard deviation higher IGFBP-1 in the second trimester, and an increase in IGFBP-1 from the first (below median) to second (above median) trimester was associated with a 342-g (95% CI: 124, 560) lower birth weight, compared with having low IGFBP-1 (below median) in both trimesters. Conversely, low IGFBP-1 in both trimesters was associated with a 200-350-g higher birth weight compared with other combinations of IGFBP-1. In conclusion, persistently low IGFBP-1 in pregnancy is associated with relatively higher birth weight. Maternal insulin resistance may provide a link between IGFBP-1 and offspring birth weight.
PubMed ID
21622950 View in PubMed
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Maternal infection with toxoplasma gondii in pregnancy and the risk of hearing loss in the offspring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98453
Source
Int J Audiol. 2010 Jan;49(1):65-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Marit Erna Austeng
Anne Eskild
Morten Jacobsen
Pål A Jenum
Andrew Whitelaw
Bo Engdahl
Author Affiliation
Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Fredrikstad Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway. Marit.Erna.Austeng@so-hf.no
Source
Int J Audiol. 2010 Jan;49(1):65-8
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Auditory Threshold
Child, Preschool
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hearing Loss - epidemiology - etiology
Hearing Tests
Humans
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Registries
Risk
Toxoplasma
Toxoplasmosis - diagnosis - epidemiology
Toxoplasmosis, Congenital - diagnosis - epidemiology
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in pregnancy and subsequent risk of hearing loss in the offspring. The study included 27 727 children born in Norway 1992-1994. Maternal toxoplasma infection during pregnancy was ascertained by serological examination and fetal infection was ascertained by parasite detection in amniotic fluid and/or postnatal serological examination. Hearing loss was defined as mean hearing loss >35 dB HL in the better ear averaged over the pure-tone hearing thresholds at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, and the children were identified through linkage to the Norwegian Registry of Hearing Loss in Children. Twenty-two of the 27 727 children (0.08%) were diagnosed with hearing loss. Forty women had primary T. gondii infection in pregnancy. None of their offspring had hearing loss. There was also no association between T. gondii infection prior to pregnancy and hearing loss in the offspring. Hence, we did not find any association between T. gondii infection in pregnancy and hearing loss in the offspring.
PubMed ID
20053157 View in PubMed
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