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Aortic sinus diameter in middle age is associated with body size in young adulthood.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297426
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-2018
Author
Jussi A Hernesniemi
Jarkko Heiskanen
Saku Ruohonen
Noora Kartiosuo
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Eero Jokinen
Päivi Tossavainen
Merja Kallio
Tomi Laitinen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology, Tays Heart Hospital, Tampere University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
Source
Heart. 2018 05; 104(9):773-778
Date
05-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Size - physiology
Body surface area
Child
Child, Preschool
Echocardiography
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Sinus of Valsalva - anatomy & histology
Young Adult
Abstract
Aortic sinus dilatation can lead to aortic valve regurgitation or even aortic dissection. Our objective was to examine the association between body surface area (BSA) measures from childhood to middle age and aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Understanding the relation of these two clarifies how aortic size is normally determined.
Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a longitudinal study with follow-up of over 31 years (1980-2011). The study comprises information of body composition from multiple time points of 1950 subjects with cardiac ultrasound measurements made in 2011. The association between BSA in different ages and aortic sinus diameter in middle age was analysed by linear regression modelling adjusted with age, sex and diastolic blood pressure. Missing BSA values were derived for each life year (ages 3-33 years) from subject-specific curves for body weight and height estimated from longitudinal measurements using mixed model regression splines.
BSA estimates in early 20s are most strongly associated with aortic sinus diameter in middle age. Top association was observed at age 23 years with one SD increase in estimated BSA corresponding to 1.04?mm (0.87-1.21?mm) increase in aortic diameter. Increase in body weight beyond early 20s does not associate with aortic sinus diameter, and the association between middle age BSA and aortic size is substantially weaker (0.74?mm increase (0.58-0.89?mm)). These results were confirmed in a subpopulation using only measured data.
The association between aortic sinus diameter and BSA is stronger when considering BSA in young adulthood compared with BSA in middle age.
PubMed ID
29092920 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk factors in 2011 and secular trends since 2007: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261572
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Nov;42(7):563-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Joel Nuotio
Mervi Oikonen
Costan G Magnussen
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Leena Taittonen
Päivi Tossavainen
Antti Jula
Britt-Marie Loo
Jorma Sa Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Nov;42(7):563-71
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood pressure
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Triglycerides - blood
Waist Circumference
Abstract
Cardiovascular risk factor levels in 2011 and 4-year changes between 2007 and 2011 were examined using data collected in follow-ups of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
The study population comprised 2063 Finnish adults aged 34-49 years (45% male). Lipid and blood pressure levels, glucose and anthropometry were measured and life style risk factors examined with questionnaires.
Mean total cholesterol level in 2011 was 5.19 mmol/l, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol 3.27 mmol/l, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol 1.33 mmol/l, and triglycerides 1.34 mmol/l. Using American Diabetes Association criteria, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was observed in 4.1% and prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or glycated hemoglobin 5.7-6.4%) diagnosed for 33.8% of the participants. Significant changes (P
PubMed ID
25053467 View in PubMed
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Childhood Exposure to Parental Smoking and Midlife Cognitive Function.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature306266
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2020 11 02; 189(11):1280-1291
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-02-2020
Author
Suvi P Rovio
Jukka Pihlman
Katja Pahkala
Markus Juonala
Costan G Magnussen
Niina Pitkänen
Ari Ahola-Olli
Pia Salo
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Leena Taittonen
Päivi Tossavainen
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2020 11 02; 189(11):1280-1291
Date
11-02-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Blood pressure
Child
Child, Preschool
Cholesterol - blood
Cognition
Cognitive Dysfunction - blood - epidemiology - etiology
Cotinine - blood
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Parents
Risk factors
Smoking - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
We studied whether exposure to parental smoking in childhood/adolescence is associated with midlife cognitive function, leveraging data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. A population-based cohort of 3,596 children/adolescents aged 3-18 years was followed between 1980 and 2011. In 2011, cognitive testing was performed on 2,026 participants aged 34-49 years using computerized testing. Measures of secondhand smoke exposure in childhood/adolescence consisted of parental self-reports of smoking and participants' serum cotinine levels. Participants were classified into 3 exposure groups: 1) no exposure (nonsmoking parents, cotinine
PubMed ID
32242223 View in PubMed
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Childhood predictors of adult fatty liver. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291515
Source
J Hepatol. 2016 Oct; 65(4):784-790
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Emmi Suomela
Mervi Oikonen
Niina Pitkänen
Ari Ahola-Olli
Johanna Virtanen
Riitta Parkkola
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Leena Taittonen
Päivi Tossavainen
Antti Jula
Britt-Marie Loo
Vera Mikkilä
Risto Telama
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: emkasu@utu.fi.
Source
J Hepatol. 2016 Oct; 65(4):784-790
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Cardiovascular diseases
Child
Fatty liver
Finland
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Humans
Lipase
Liver
Longitudinal Studies
Membrane Proteins
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Risk factors
Abstract
Fatty liver is a potentially preventable cause of serious liver diseases. This longitudinal study aimed to identify childhood risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood in a population-based group of Finnish adults.
Study cohort included 2,042 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study aged 3-18years at baseline in 1980. During the latest follow-up in 2011, the liver was scanned by ultrasound. In addition to physical and environmental factors related to fatty liver, we examined whether the genetic risk posed by a single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene (PNPLA3) (rs738409) strengthens prediction of adult fatty liver.
Independent childhood predictors of adult fatty liver were small for gestational age, (odds ratio=1.71, 95% confidence interval=1.07-2.72), variant in PNPLA3 (1.63, 1.29-2.07 per one risk allele), variant in the transmembrane 6 superfamily 2 gene (TM6SF2) (1.57, 1.08-2.30), BMI (1.30, 1.07-1.59 per standard deviation) and insulin (1.25, 1.05-1.49 per standard deviation). Childhood blood pressure, physical activity, C-reactive protein, smoking, serum lipid levels or parental lifestyle factors did not predict fatty liver. Risk assessment based on childhood age, sex, BMI, insulin levels, birth weight, TM6SF2 and PNPLA3 was superior in predicting fatty liver compared with the approach using only age, sex, BMI and insulin levels (C statistics, 0.725 vs. 0.749; p=0.002).
Childhood risk factors on the development of fatty liver were small for gestational age, high insulin and high BMI. Prediction of adult fatty liver was enhanced by taking into account genetic variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genes.
The increase in pediatric obesity emphasizes the importance of identification of children and adolescents at high risk of fatty liver in adulthood. We used data from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study to examine the associations of childhood (3-18years) risk variables with fatty liver assessed in adulthood at the age of 34-49years. The findings suggest that a multifactorial approach with both lifestyle and genetic factors included would improve early identification of children with a high risk of adult fatty liver.
PubMed ID
27235307 View in PubMed
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Childhood risk factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature307741
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2020 01; 293:18-25
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2020
Author
Juhani S Koskinen
Ville Kytö
Markus Juonala
Jorma S A Viikari
Jaakko Nevalainen
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Tomi Laitinen
Päivi Tossavainen
Eero Jokinen
Costan G Magnussen
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520, Turku, Finland; Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20521, Turku, Finland; Department of Medicine, Satakunta Central Hospital, Sairaalantie 3, 28500, Pori, Finland. Electronic address: jskosk@utu.fi.
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2020 01; 293:18-25
Date
01-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Blood Pressure - physiology
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - etiology
Carotid Arteries - diagnostic imaging
Carotid Artery Diseases - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Progression
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Heart Disease Risk Factors
Humans
Incidence
Male
Plaque, Atherosclerotic - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Ultrasonography
Abstract
Carotid plaque is a specific sign of atherosclerosis and adults with carotid plaque are at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. Atherosclerosis has roots in childhood and pediatric guidelines provide cut-off values for cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is unknown whether these cut-offs predict adulthood advanced atherosclerosis.
The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a follow-up of children that begun in 1980 when 2653 participants with data for the present analyses were aged 3-18 years. In 2001 and 2007 follow-ups, in addition to adulthood cardiovascular risk factors, carotid ultrasound data was collected. Long-term burden, as the area under the curve, was evaluated for childhood (6-18 years) risk factors. To study the associations of guideline-based cut-offs with carotid plaque, both childhood and adult risk factors were classified according to clinical practice guidelines.
Carotid plaque, defined as a focal structure of the arterial wall protruding into lumen >50% compared to adjacent intima-media thickness, was present in 88 (3.3%) participants. Relative risk for carotid plaque, when adjusted for age and sex, was 3.03 (95% CI, 1.76-5.21) for childhood dyslipidemia, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.99-2.32) for childhood elevated systolic blood pressure, and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.26-2.94) for childhood smoking. Childhood dyslipidemia and smoking remained independent predictors of carotid plaque in models additionally adjusted for adult risk factors and family history of coronary heart disease. Carotid plaque was present in less than 1% of adults with no childhood risk factors.
Findings reinforce childhood prevention efforts and demonstrate the utility of guideline-based cut-offs in identifying children at increased risk for adulthood atherosclerosis.
PubMed ID
31830725 View in PubMed
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Childhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Risk of Fatty Liver in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature309461
Source
Hepatology. 2020 01; 71(1):67-75
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
01-2020
Author
Tomi T Laitinen
Jussi Vahtera
Katja Pahkala
Costan G Magnussen
Joel Nuotio
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kivimäki
Terho Lehtimäki
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Päivi Tossavainen
Jaana Pentti
Jorma S A Viikari
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Source
Hepatology. 2020 01; 71(1):67-75
Date
01-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Fatty Liver - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
Fatty liver is a preventable cause of liver failure, but early risk factors for adulthood fatty liver are poorly understood. We examined the association of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with adulthood fatty liver and tested adulthood risk factors of fatty liver as possible mediators of this link. The study population comprised 2,042 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Follow-up with repeated clinical examinations was 31?years. Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was assessed using data from parents' socioeconomic position and socioeconomic circumstances in participants' residential neighborhoods, categorized as high versus low socioeconomic disadvantage. Fatty liver was determined by ultrasound during the last follow-up (2011) at ages 34-49 years. Childhood and adulthood risk factors, including metabolic biomarkers and lifestyle variables, were assessed in clinical examinations. A total of 18.9% of the participants had fatty liver in adulthood. High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with an increased risk of fatty liver (risk ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.42 [1.18-1.70]; P = 0.0002). This association was robust to adjustment for age, sex, and childhood risk factors of fatty liver, including high body mass index, elevated insulin, and low birth weight (1.33 [1.09-1.62]; P = 0.005). High childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was also associated with the development of risk factors of fatty liver in adulthood. Adulthood risk factors linking childhood socioeconomic disadvantage with fatty liver included waist circumference (proportion mediated of the total effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, 45%), body mass index (40%), systolic blood pressure (29%), insulin (20%), physical activity (15%), triglycerides (14%), and red meat consumption (7%). Conclusion: Childhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with multiple risk factors of fatty liver and increased likelihood of fatty liver in adulthood.
PubMed ID
31169929 View in PubMed
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Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Arterial Stiffness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286069
Source
Hypertension. 2017 Oct;70(4):729-735
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Elina Puolakka
Katja Pahkala
Tomi T Laitinen
Costan G Magnussen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Päivi Tossavainen
Eero Jokinen
Matthew A Sabin
Tomi Laitinen
Marko Elovainio
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Source
Hypertension. 2017 Oct;70(4):729-735
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Atherosclerosis - diagnosis - epidemiology - prevention & control
Carotid Arteries - diagnostic imaging - physiology
Child
Child health
Child, Preschool
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Pulse Wave Analysis
Social Class
Vascular Stiffness - physiology
Abstract
Increasing evidence supports the importance of socioeconomic factors in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, the association of childhood socioeconomic status (SES) with arterial stiffness in adulthood has not been reported. Our aim was to determine whether higher childhood family-level SES is associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. The analyses were performed using data gathered within the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The sample comprised 2566 participants who had data concerning family SES at ages 3 to 18 years in 1980 and arterial pulse wave velocity and carotid artery distensibility measured 21 or 27 years later in adulthood. Higher family SES in childhood was associated with lower arterial stiffness in adulthood; carotid artery distensibility being higher (ß value±SE, 0.029±0.0089%/10 mm Hg; P=0.001) and pulse wave velocity lower (ß value±SE, -0.062±0.022 m/s; P=0.006) among those with higher family SES in a multivariable analysis adjusted with age, sex, and conventional childhood cardiometabolic risk factors. The association remained significant after further adjustment for participant's SES in adulthood (ß value±SE, 0.026±0.010%/10 mm Hg; P=0.01 for carotid artery distensibility and ß value±SE, -0.048±0.023 m/s; P=0.04 for pulse wave velocity) but attenuated after adjustment for adulthood cardiometabolic risk factors (ß value±SE, 0.015±0.008%/10 mm Hg; P=0.08 for carotid artery distensibility and ß value±SE, -0.019±0.02 m/s; P=0.38 for pulse wave velocity). In conclusion, we observed an association between higher family SES in childhood and lower arterial stiffness in adulthood. Our findings suggest that special attention could be paid to children from low SES families to prevent cardiometabolic diseases primordially.
PubMed ID
28808067 View in PubMed
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Childhood socioeconomic status and lifetime health behaviors: The Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295618
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2018 05 01; 258:289-294
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
05-01-2018
Author
Elina Puolakka
Katja Pahkala
Tomi T Laitinen
Costan G Magnussen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Satu Männistö
Kristiina S Pälve
Tuija Tammelin
Päivi Tossavainen
Eero Jokinen
Kylie J Smith
Tomi Laitinen
Marko Elovainio
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address: elina.a.puolakka@utu.fi.
Source
Int J Cardiol. 2018 05 01; 258:289-294
Date
05-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Health Behavior - physiology
Healthy Diet - trends
Humans
Life Style
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prospective Studies
Risk Reduction Behavior
Smoking - adverse effects - epidemiology - trends
Social Class
Abstract
Differences in health behaviors partly explain the socioeconomic gap in cardiovascular health. We prospectively examined the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors in adulthood, and the difference of lifestyle factors according to childhood SES in multiple time points from childhood to adulthood.
The sample comprised 3453 participants aged 3-18?years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The participants were followed up for 31?years (N?=?1675-1930). SES in childhood was characterized as reported annual family income and classified on an 8-point scale. Diet, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were used as adult and life course lifestyle factors. Higher childhood SES predicted a healthier diet in adulthood in terms of lower consumption of meat (ß?±?SE -3.6?±?0.99,p?
PubMed ID
29428239 View in PubMed
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Childhood Socioeconomic Status in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome and Glucose Abnormalities in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286736
Source
Diabetes Care. 2016 Dec;39(12):2311-2317
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2016
Author
Elina Puolakka
Katja Pahkala
Tomi T Laitinen
Costan G Magnussen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Päivi Tossavainen
Eero Jokinen
Matthew A Sabin
Tomi Laitinen
Marko Elovainio
Laura Pulkki-Råback
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Source
Diabetes Care. 2016 Dec;39(12):2311-2317
Date
Dec-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age of Onset
Cardiovascular Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Glucose Intolerance - diagnosis - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - diagnosis - epidemiology
Prevalence
Prognosis
Risk factors
Social Class
Waist Circumference
Abstract
We prospectively examined whether family socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes in adulthood.
The sample comprised 2,250 participants from the longitudinal Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study cohort. Participants were 3-18 years old at baseline (mean age 10.6 years), and they were followed for 31 years. SES was characterized as reported annual income of the family and classified on an 8-point scale.
For each 1-unit increase in family SES in childhood, the risk for adult MetS decreased (risk ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.94 [0.90-0.98]; P = 0.003) when adjusted for age, sex, childhood cardiometabolic risk factors (lipids, systolic blood pressure, insulin, and BMI), childhood physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The association remained after adjustment for participants' own SES in adulthood (0.95 [0.91-0.99]; P = 0.005). A similar association was seen between childhood SES and the risk of having either adult IFG or type 2 diabetes (0.96 [0.92-0.99]; P = 0.01, age and sex adjusted). This association became nonsignificant after adjustment for childhood risk factors (P = 0.08). Of the individual components of MetS, lower SES in childhood predicted large waist circumference (0.96 [0.93-0.99]; P = 0.003) and a high triglycerides concentration (0.96 [0.92-1.00]; P = 0.04) after adjustment for the aforementioned risk factors.
Lower SES in childhood may be associated with an increased risk for MetS, IFG, and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Special attention could be paid to children of low SES families to decrease the prevalence of MetS in adulthood.
PubMed ID
27797929 View in PubMed
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Cognitive performance in young adulthood and midlife: Relations with age, sex, and education-The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature284993
Source
Neuropsychology. 2016 Jul;30(5):532-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2016
Author
Suvi P Rovio
Katja Pahkala
Jaakko Nevalainen
Markus Juonala
Pia Salo
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Leena Taittonen
Päivi Tossavainen
Jorma Viikari
Juha O Rinne
Olli T Raitakari
Source
Neuropsychology. 2016 Jul;30(5):532-42
Date
Jul-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Cognition
Educational Status
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Neuropsychological Tests
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Abstract
Age, education, and sex associate with cognitive performance. We investigated associations between age, sex, education, and cognitive performance in young or middle-aged adults and evaluated data reduction methods to optimally capture cognitive performance in our population-based data.
This study is part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The 3,596 randomly selected subjects (aged 3-18 years in 1980) have been followed up for 30 years. In 2011, a computer-based cognitive testing battery (the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery [CANTAB]) was used to assess several cognitive domains. Principal component analysis, categorical and standardized classifications were applied to the cognitive data.
Among 34- to 49-year-old participants, cognitive performance declined with age, while education associated with better cognitive functions in several cognitive domains. Men had higher performance on all cognitive domains except visual or episodic memory, in which women outperformed men. The results were similar regardless of the data reduction method used.
The associations between sex, age, education, and cognitive performance are already apparent in young adulthood or middle age. Principal component analyses, categorical and standardized classifications are useful tools to analyze CANTAB cognitive data. (PsycINFO Database Record
PubMed ID
26523520 View in PubMed
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27 records – page 1 of 3.