Objective: Preterm children with low birth weight are at greater risk of experiencing speech and language difficulties than full-term children. The aim of the current study was to investigate expressive language skills of Finnish-speaking preterm children with low birth weight [extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) children: n = 8; very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children: n = 10] at 2 years of corrected age and to compare their language results with full-term controls (n = 18), using spontaneous speech samples. Methods: The children were video recorded in semistructured free-play sessions with their mothers. From these video samples, expressive vocabulary size and maximum sentence length (MSL) were analyzed. In addition, the possible effect of children's gender on language measures as well as associations between different language measures were examined. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the preterm and full-term groups in the size of expressive vocabulary. In contrast, the MSL, which measures morphosyntactic skills, was significantly shorter in preterm children. A positive correlation was found between MSL and expressive vocabulary. Children's gender was not associated with language skills measured. Conclusion: The findings indicate that Finnish-speaking preterm children, especially ELBW children, experience difficulties in morphosyntactic skills.
To investigate the association between the type of ICU and mortality for children treated at PICUs and adult ICUs.
This was a national multicenter cohort study. Data were collected from electronic critical care data management systems at 3 units and from national intensive care registries at 26 units.
We assessed the incidence of admissions, length of stay at ICUs, main diagnoses, and mortality for children at ICUs. Units were categorized as PICUs or as adult ICUs located at university hospitals or at non-academic central hospitals.
Children younger than 17 years of age treated at ICUs in Finland.
There were 4,876 admissions from 2009 to 2010, and 98.9% of patients survived until unit discharge. The mean length of stay was 3.0 ± 7.4 days; 1,395 patients (35%) required mechanical ventilation at PICUs versus 167 (35%) at adult university hospital ICUs versus 79 (19%) at central hospital ICUs (p
Comment In: Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016 Feb;17(2):178-8026841034
Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts and full studies, extracted data and assessed quality. Meta-analyses were performed, calculating risk ratios and weighted differences of means with 95% confidence intervals using a random-effects model.
Eight trials were included. Repeated betamethasone treatment decreased the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (relative risk 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.77-0.93). Trials involving weekly or biweekly repeated betamethasone and those involving a single rescue dose decreased the risk of respiratory distress syndrome. Intrauterine growth was significantly restricted among preterm infants exposed to weekly or biweekly repeated betamethasone. A single rescue course did not affect growth. Four follow-up studies did not reveal any disturbances in neurodevelopment or growth at two years of corrected age.
Repeated corticosteroid treatment decreased the risk of respiratory distress syndrome among preterm infants. Weekly or biweekly repeated betamethasone restricted intrauterine growth, which raises concerns about long-term consequences on neurodevelopment and metabolism. More follow-up studies are needed to confirm the long-term safety of repeated betamethasone.