High-dose therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been considered a potential treatment approach in order to improve the poor prognosis in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but its role has not yet been clearly established. We analyzed retrospectively the outcome and prognostic factors in 48 consecutive patients with MCL scheduled for ASCT in five transplant centers. In 14 patients (29%), a sufficient amount of stem cells could not be collected. Mobilization failure was associated with female sex, blastoid cytology, and low hemoglobin level. Altogether 35 patients underwent ASCT, 24 patients as part of the first-line treatment and 11 patients later. After transplantation 28 patients (80%) remained in or achieved remission. Two patients died of transplant-related complications. During the median follow-up time of 38 months, nine patients have relapsed. The median event-free survival (EFS) was 39 months. Age over 60 years and elevated C-reactive protein level at diagnosis were associated with poorer outcome after transelantation. ASCT is an effective treatment in MCL with a high response rate and a longer survival than seen in conventionally treated patients. However, no plateau was seen in the EFS curve after ASCT. Whether cure Can be achieved in a proportion of patients with ASCT is currently unknown and should be studied in larger patient series with a longer follow-up.
To evaluate the biological roles and prognostic significance of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mediating transcription factors (TFs) Twist, ZEB1 and Slug in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). EMT has been shown to enhance solid tumour metastasis, invasion, and proliferation.
Expression of Twist, ZEB1 and Slug was evaluated immunohistochemically in eight samples from reactive lymphoid tissues and in diagnostic samples from 102 DLBCL patients treated with curative intent with R-CHOP-type chemotherapy. ZEB1 and Slug expression correlated with adverse disease presentation. However, cytoplasmic Slug expression was linked to a favourable disease outcome, whereas nuclear expression of ZEB1 indicated an adverse outcome.
This study shows that an EMT-like process occurs in lymphomas. Of the TFs investigated, ZEB1 seems to be the main one associated with adverse clinical presentation and clinical outcome. Surprisingly, Slug expression in cytoplasm was linked to a favourable prognosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether inhibition of ZEB1 could serve as a therapeutic target.
OBJECTIVES: The influence of matrix-tumour interactions in Hodgkin's lymphoma is poorly characterised, although a large part of the tumour often consists of reactive tissue. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinicopathological role of two main inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, in Hodgkin's lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expressions were studied from paraffin-embedded tumour sections of 68 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma by using immunostaining with TIMP-1 and TIMP-2-specific antibodies. The results of the stainings were compared with the clinicopathological disease characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 33.3% of the tumour tissue sections expressed TIMP-1 and 46.8% expressed TIMP-2. The expression of the TIMP-1 protein was found to be strongly associated with the nodular sclerosis subtype (P = 0.015) and the existence of a bulky tumour (P = 0.004) in Hodgkin's lymphoma. The expression of the TIMP-2 protein, on the other hand, correlated with the occurrence of B symptoms (P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first clinical evidence suggesting that TIMP-1 could promote growth of Hodgkin's lymphoma, and may be linked to connective tissue turnover in the nodular sclerosis subtype. However, TIMP-2 is shown to correlate with systemic symptoms.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare brain tumour with a dismal prognosis. Several phase II studies with high-dose methotrexate-based regimens have shown promising early results, but in all hospital-based data published so far, the disease outcome is poor.
We performed a hospital-based retrospective analysis to evaluate the long-term results of the Nordic type of Bonn chemotherapy regimen in PCNSL patients. The study included 54 patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL who received chemotherapy with curative intent as their first-line treatment.
We found promising response rates, 76% of the patients achieving CR and 22% patients achieving PR, with corresponding two-year EFS 53% and OS 76%. However, with longer follow-up a constant pattern of relapses was observed with only one patient remaining in primary remission after 60 months.
The finding suggests that basic biological differences exist between PCNSL and systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and there is a need for consolidation or maintenance therapy after achieving a remission in patients with PCNSL.
This is the first study to describe the role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in Hodgkin's disease. Strong MMP-2 expression correlated with a favorable prognosis, while MMP-9 expression showed a tendency toward an adverse outcome. MMP-9 expression correlated with B symptoms and decreased new vessel formation. MMP-2 expression was associated with the nodular sclerosis subtype, and its expression was most pronounced in the vicinity of sclerosis. Neither of the gelatinases nor the extent of neovascularization correlated with tumor stage, the occurrence of bulky disease, or extranodal infiltrates. Together, these findings imply that the adverse role of MMP-9 may be associated with the controlling of immunological processes but not the invasion probabilities or neovascularization of the tumor. The favorable prognostic value of MMP-2 is surprising in view of the role of MMPs in solid tumors. This, however, may be linked to the basic biological differences of hematological malignancies vs. other tumors.
OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out to clarify the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and the extent of neovascularization in the clinicopathologic behavior of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded histologic sections from 57 patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were stained with MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and factor VIII antibodies to correlate the expression of these markers to the clinical disease characteristics. RESULTS: Strong MMP-9 staining was found to be an adverse prognostic factor among patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas, the probabilities for 5-yr disease-free survival being 73%, 63%, 50%, and 0% in patients with grades 0, 1, 2, and 3 staining, respectively. Among the patients with strong (grades 2 and 3) MMP-9 staining, however, positivity for TIMP-1 indicated a trend toward a more favorable prognosis. TIMP-1 expression also correlated with the immunoblastic and anaplastic lymphoma subtypes. The expression of the proteins for MMP-2 and factor VIII had no independent prognostic role. None of the study parameters correlated with disease stage, the occurrence of extranodal infiltrates, the occurrence of bulky tumor, or the IPI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Positivity for MMP-9 immunoreactive protein is an independent sign of an unfavorable prognosis in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. This is not mediated through influences in tumor dissemination or neovascularization indicating it to carry other important biological functions.
The application of positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) in treatment response evaluation has increased in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), although its predictive value is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed the rate of false-positive PET-CTs performed as interim (n = 94) and end-of-treatment (n = 8) assessments among 102 DLBCL patients treated during 2010-2017 at Oulu University Hospital. In PET-CT Deauville score =4 was regarded as positive. A biopsy was performed on 35 patients, and vital lymphoma tissue was detected from nine patients. Positive biopsy findings were associated with poor disease outcomes in this study. This difference was statistically significant: 2-year failure-free survival (FFS) was 44% in patients with a positive biopsy versus 83% for those with a negative biopsy (p = 0.003). The corresponding overall survival (OS) rates were 53% versus 95% (p = 0.010). In the multivariate analyses, a negative biopsy was an independent protective factor in FFS (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.093 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.017-0.511); p = 0.006) unrelated to the International Prognostic Index (IPI) (HR 1.139 [95% CI 0.237-5.474] p = 0.871) or stage (HR 1.365 [95% CI 0.138-13.470]; p = 0.790). There was no statistically significant difference in OS according to the PET results, but the FFS rate was significantly higher in patients with a negative PET. The value of PET-CT as an evaluation method suffers from a high false-positive rate, and it is inadequate alone for the justification of treatment decisions. Biopsy results provide more reliable prognostic information for the evaluation of treatment response and outcome and should be used to assess patients with positive PET-CT scans.
Lack of prognostic value of MMP-9 expression and immunohistochemically defined germinal center phenotype in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with modern chemotherapy with or without CD20 antibody.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphomas, with no accepted biological prognostic markers in routine clinical practice. Previously, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9), tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)- 1 and non-germinal center (GC) phenotype have been shown to associate with poor prognosis in DLBCL patients. The aim of this study was to find out whether tissue expression of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) or their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) or immunohistochemically defined GC phenotype could act as prognostic markers in patients treated with modern treatments. Additionally, correlations between these proteins and GC phenotype were investigated. GC phenotype and tissue expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples from 114 DLBCL patients. In this study, in patients treated with modern lymphoma treatments (5-year cause-specific survival 69.8%) MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 expression or GC phenotype did not correlate with survival. International Prognostic Index (IPI) and stage were the only factors, which retained their prognostic significance in this patient material. Gelatinases or TIMPs did not correlate with GC phenotype, either. Prognostic markers are dependent on the lymphoma treatments used. In DLBCL patients treated with modern chemotherapy with or without rituximab, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and GC phenotype seem to have lost their prognostic value.
The Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) is superior to the International Prognostic Index (IPI) in predicting survival following intensive first-line immunochemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT).
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course. The recently proposed Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (MIPI) predicted the survival of MCL better than the International Prognostic Index in MCL patients treated with conventional chemotherapy, but its validity in MCL treated with more intensive immunochemotherapy has been questioned. Applied here to 158 patients of the Nordic MCL2 trial of first-line intensive immunochemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, the MIPI and the simplified MIPI (s-MIPI) predicted survival significantly better (P .004). Both the MIPI and the s-MIPI mainly identified 2 risk groups, low and intermediate versus high risk, with the more easily applied s-MIPI being just as powerful as the MIPI. The MIPI(B) (biological), incorporating Ki-67 expression, identified almost half of the patients as high risk. We suggest that also a simplified MIPI(B) is feasible.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the first Nordic mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) protocol was to study the clinical significance of an augmented CHOP induction chemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and to examine the prognostic significance of stem cell contamination rates in newly diagnosed patients with MCL. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-one newly diagnosed patients below 66 yr were enrolled and given three series of an augmented CHOP regimen. Responders underwent stem cell mobilization with a fourth course of CHOP, stem cell harvest and ASCT. Stem cell purging was optional in the protocol and followed the routine of each participating centre. The number of tumour cells in the reinfused autografts was estimated by flow cytometry or quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Induction therapy led to complete remission (CR) in 11 of 41 patients (27%), partial remission (PR) in 20 of 41 patients (49%) and no response in nine patients (22%), whereas one patient was not evaluable. Twenty-seven of the 31 responders underwent ASCT and 24 achieved or maintained a CR. The overall and failure-free 4-yr survival on intention-to-treat basis were 51% and 15%, respectively. Among the transplanted patients, a significantly increased failure-free (P