We examined the associations of two functional variants 866G>A and DEL/INS polymorphisms of UCP2 gene with low-grade inflammatory proteins (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, complement C3 [C3], and complement C4 [C4]) in 131 children (52.7% boys, aged 9.5 +/- 0.4 y) and 118 adolescents (44.1% males, aged 15.5 +/- 0.4 y) selected from the European Youth Heart Study. Differences in inflammatory markers among the genotype variants of the two UCP2 gene polymorphisms were analyzed after adjusting for sex, age, pubertal stage, fitness, and fatness. The results showed that fibrinogen, C3, and C4 were higher in GG carriers than in subjects carrying the A allele of the 866G>A polymorphism of the UCP2 gene (UCP2 -866G>A) polymorphism (all p A in modifying low-grade inflammatory state in apparently healthy children and adolescents. Given the implication of complement factors on atherosclerosis process, these results contribute to explain the reduced cardiovascular risk associated with the A allele of the UCP2 -866G>A polymorphism.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between anthropometric measurements of total and central adiposity and blood pressure in school-aged children, and to study whether these associations are modified by the levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, height, skinfold thickness and waist circumference were measured in 873 children aged 9-10 years participating in the Estonian and Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study. Mean arterial pressure was calculated. Body mass index and skinfold thickness were used as markers of total adiposity, whereas waist circumference and waist-height ratio were used as markers of central adiposity. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by a maximal ergometer bike test, and dichotomized into low and high levels. RESULTS: Markers of total and central adiposity were positively associated with blood pressure. The results from the regression models showed that the markers of total and central adiposity were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure in girls with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Similar results were observed when mean arterial pressure was the outcome variable. None of the markers of total and central adiposity were significantly associated with blood pressure in girls with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness or in boys with low or high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a positive influence of simple anthropometric measurements of total and central adiposity on blood pressure, and suggest that higher cardiorespiratory fitness may attenuate the association between body fat and blood pressure in school-aged children.
The purposes were: (1) to determine the influence of sexual maturation status and body composition by comparing cardiovascular fitness (CVF) level in two adolescent populations from the south and the north of Europe; (2) to describe the associations between CVF and sexual maturation status in adolescence. A total of 1,867 Spanish adolescents from the AVENA study and 472 from the Swedish part of the EYHS were selected for this report (aged 14-16 years). CVF (expressed by the maximal oxygen consumption) was estimated from 20 m shuttle run test in the AVENA study and from a maximal ergometer cycle test in the EYHS. Sexual maturation status was classified according to Tanner stages. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated from skinfold thicknesses. Expressing CVF in different ways (in absolute value and in relation to weight or fat free mass; FFM) resulted in two different results with regard to CVF interpretation and comparison between the study populations. A higher CVF, as expressed in relation to FFM, was observed in the Spanish when compared to Swedish adolescents (P = 0.001). However, after adjusting for both sexual maturation status and BF%, the difference disappeared in males, while it remained significant in females (P = 0.001). CVF was negatively associated with sexual maturation status in males (P = 0.001). However, after adjusting for BF%, the association disappeared in males, while it was significant in females (P = 0.05). These results suggest that for CVF comparisons and interpretation in adolescent populations, sexual maturation status and BF%, as well as the way to express the CVF, should be taken into account.
The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for several indices of central adiposity in 9- and 15-year-old Swedish children from the European Youth Heart Study (N=1,075). Age- and sex-specific percentiles for waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-height ratio and waist-to-hip ratio were provided. No significant differences were found in the proportion of individuals with a high waist-to-height ratio (using the 0.500 cut-off) between age or sex groups. The percentile values for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio provided in this paper, together with data from other cohorts, could help to establish international criteria for defining central obesity. For comparative purposes, future studies reporting reference data for waist circumference and/or waist-to-height ratio, should also report age- and sex-specific height values. More studies involving children of different ages and from different regions in Scandinavia are needed.
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of cardiovascular fitness (CVF) with a clustering of metabolic risk factors in children, and to examine whether there is a CVF level associated with a low metabolic risk. CVF was estimated by a maximal ergometer bike test on 873 randomly selected children from Sweden and Estonia. Additional measured outcomes included fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDLC, blood pressure, and the sum of five skinfolds. A metabolic risk score was computed as the mean of the standardized outcomes scores. A risk score
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of physical activity (PA) at different levels and intensities and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with a clustering of metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents with special consideration of body fat. STUDY DESIGN: Total PA and intensity levels were measured by accelerometry in children (9 years, n = 273) and adolescents (15 years, n = 256). CRF was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test. Measured outcomes included fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and body fat. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was computed as the mean of the standardized outcome scores. A "non-obesity-MRS" was computed omitting body fat from the MRS. Analysis of variance and multiple regressions were used in the analysis. RESULTS: Total and vigorous PA was inversely significantly associated with MRS in adolescent girls, the group with lowest PA, becoming insignificant when CRF was introduced in the analysis. Significant regression coefficients of total PA and CRF on non-obesity-MRS diminished when body fat was entered in the analysis. CONCLUSIONS: CRF is more strongly correlated to metabolic risk than total PA, whereas body fat appears to have a pivotal role in the association of CRF with metabolic risk.
BACKGROUND: It is unclear how the amount and intensity of physical activity (PA) are associated with cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and body fatness in children. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations of total PA and intensity levels to CVF and fatness in children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of 780 children aged 9-10 y from Sweden and Estonia was conducted. PA was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as min/d of total PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA. CVF was measured with a maximal ergometer bike test and was expressed as W/kg. Body fat was derived from the sum of 5 skinfold-thickness measurements. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the degree to which variance in CVF and body fat was explained by PA, after control for age, sex, and study location. RESULTS: Lower body fat was significantly associated with higher levels of vigorous PA, but not with moderate or total PA. Those children who engaged in >40 min vigorous PA/d had lower body fat than did those who engaged in 10-18 min vigorous PA/d. Total PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA were positively associated with CVF. Those children who engaged in >40 min vigorous PA/d had higher CVF than did those who accumulated