BACKGROUND: Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA) and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. METHODS: A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal) participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. RESULTS: In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to examine supportive and/or pressuring influences of parents and coaches on young athletes' maladaptive perfectionist tendencies, relationships to friends, and competency perceptions in soccer. Previous research has revealed that parents and coaches may give rise to both enjoyable and stressful sport experiences for the pediatric athlete and that parents and coaches are thus able to influence whether young people decide to quit sport or continue participating. Less is known about the relation of supportive versus pressuring parental and coach behaviors on the quality of athletes' achievement striving, relationships to friends in sport, and their competence perceptions. Such knowledge may help create a better psychological sport experience for pediatric athletes. DATA SOURCES/SYNTHESIS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional field study was carried out among 677 young Norwegian soccer players (aged 10 to 14 years; 504 boys, 173 girls; mean age: boys = 11.9 years, SD = 2.9; girls = 11.2 years, SD = 2.1) taking part in the Norway Cup international youth soccer tournament in 2001. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with follow-up canonical correlation was used to examine multivariate relationships between supportive and pressuring behavior and athletes' psychosocial experiences. RESULTS: Joint pressuring behaviors from parents and coaches related positively to maladaptive achievement striving, as indicated by overconcern for mistakes, doubt about one's soccer actions, and lowered perceptions of soccer competence. Mirroring these findings, predominantly supportive coach-created psychological climates were related to a linear pattern of psychological outcomes comprising high-quality friendships, positive competency perceptions, and the absence of specific worries related to achievement striving. CONCLUSIONS: Supportive, mastery-oriented coach influence seems beneficial for constructive psychosocial outcomes in pediatric athletes, and athletes experiencing a joint social pressure to excel from coaches and parents may benefit less psychosocially through sport.
Promoting physical activity in a low-income multiethnic district: effects of a community intervention study to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a community intervention reducing inactivity.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the net effects on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease of a community-based 3-year intervention to increase physical activity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A pseudo-experimental cohort design was used to compare changes in risk factors from an intervention and a control district with similar socioeconomic status in Oslo, Norway, using a baseline investigation of 2,950 30- to 67-year-old participants and a follow-up investigation of 1,776 (67% of those eligible, 56% women, 18% non-Western immigrants) participants. A set of theory-based activities to promote physical activity were implemented and tailored toward groups with different psychosocial readiness for change. All results reported are net changes (the difference between changes in the intervention and control districts). At both surveys, the nonfasting serum levels of lipids and glucose were adjusted for time since last meal. RESULTS: The increase in physical activity measured by two self-reported questionnaires was 9.5% (P = 0.008) and 8.1% (P = 0.02), respectively. The proportion who increased their body mass was 14.2% lower in the intervention district (P