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An ethics committee for medical research in Greenland: History and challenges

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102321
Source
Pages 144-146 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
  1 document  
Author
Olsen, J
Mulvad, G
S�¸vndah, M
Pedersen, MS
Christiansen, T
S�¸rensen, PH
Source
Pages 144-146 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Biobanks
Ethics
Greenland
Guidelines
Medical research
Protocols
Abstract
Ethical appraisal of medical protocols for research is now well accepted, and needed when research may carry side effects and risks that may be difficult to understand for the people invited to take part in research. We argue that time has come for Greenland to establish a formal medical research ethics committee with a legal basis. With proper use of modern means of communication it should be possible to run a committee at a reasonable cost. We believe that such a committee should closely follow international standards. One urgent matter to get under a formal set of rules is to set proper standards for storage of biological samples taken from people in Greenland.
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Cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78492
Source
BJOG. 2007 May;114(5):588-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Killie M K
Kjeldsen-Kragh J.
Husebekk A.
Skogen B.
Olsen J A
Kristiansen I S
Author Affiliation
Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway. mette.kjaer.killie@unn.no
Source
BJOG. 2007 May;114(5):588-95
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Female
Health status
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Life expectancy
Norway - epidemiology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic - diagnosis - economics
Prenatal Diagnosis - economics
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic - diagnosis - economics
Quality of Life
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the costs and health consequences of three different screening strategies for neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). DESIGN: Cost-utility analysis on the basis of a decision tree that incorporates the relevant strategies and outcomes. SETTING: Three health regions in Norway encompassing a 2.78 million population. POPULATION: Pregnant women (n = 100,448) screened for human platelet antigen (HPA) 1a and anti-HPA 1a antibodies, and their babies. METHOD: Decision tree analysis. In three branches of the decision tree, pregnant women entered a programme while in one no screening was performed. The three different screening strategies included all HPA 1a negative women, only HPA 1a negative, HLA DRB3*0101 positive women or only HPA 1a negative women with high level of anti-HPA 1a antibodies. Included women underwent ultrasound examination and elective caesarean section 2-4 weeks before term. Severely thrombocytopenic newborn were transfused immediately with compatible platelets. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs. RESULTS: Compared with no screening, a programme of screening and subsequent treatment would generate between 210 and 230 additional QALYs among 100,000 pregnant women, and at the same time, reduce health care costs by approximately 1.7 million euros. The sensitivity analyses indicate that screening is cost effective or even cost saving within a wide range of probabilities and costs. CONCLUSION: Our calculations indicate that it is possible to establish an antenatal screening programme for NAIT that is cost effective.
PubMed ID
17355359 View in PubMed
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Does maternal tobacco smoking modify the effect of alcohol on fetal growth?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature12080
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1991 Jan;81(1):69-73
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1991
  1 website  
Author
Olsen, J
Pereira, A
Olsen, SF
Author Affiliation
Institute of Social Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark
Source
American Journal of Public Health. 1991 Jan;81(1):69-73
Date
Jan-1991
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking
Birth weight
Denmark
Embryonic and Fetal Development
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Pregnancy - psychology
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Smoking
Abstract
Smoking and drinking habits were registered by a self-administered questionnaire in 36th week of gestation in 11,698 pregnant women, more than 80 percent of all such women in two Danish cities 1984-87. Alcohol consumption of 120 g/week or more was associated with a greater reduction in the average birthweight in the babies of smokers than of non-smokers (about 40 grams for the non-smokers and about 200 grams for the smokers). This is particularly striking considering that the average birthweight for smokers is lower than for non-smokers. A birthweight difference of more than 500 grams was found between babies of mothers who neither smoked nor drank and mothers who smoked and drank heavily. Our data suggest that women's smoking habits should be taken into consideration when giving pregnant women advice about drinking.
PubMed ID
1983919 View in PubMed
Online Resources
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Excretion patterns of human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus among young children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature80149
Source
Eur J Med Res. 2006 Aug 30;11(8):329-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-30-2006
Author
von Linstow M-L
Eugen-Olsen J.
Koch A.
Winther T N
Westh H.
Hogh B.
Author Affiliation
Dept. of Paediatrics 531, University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre Hospital, Kettegard Allé 30, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark. linstow@dadlnet.dk
Source
Eur J Med Res. 2006 Aug 30;11(8):329-35
Date
Aug-30-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Body Fluids - virology
Child, Hospitalized
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Metapneumovirus - isolation & purification
RNA, Viral - analysis
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections - diagnosis - epidemiology
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses - isolation & purification
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - virology
Retrospective Studies
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Abstract
BACKGROUND: As respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) cause serious respiratory tract infections, the routes of transmission of these viruses are important to elucidate. We examined the modes of virus shedding and shedding duration of RSV and hMPV in young children. METHODS: From each child in a group of 44 children (37 RSV-positive, 6 hMPV-positive, and 1 co-infected child), aged between 0.5-38 months, hospitalised at Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, one nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), saliva, urine, and faeces sample were collected at inclusion and weekly in a three-week period. Sweat and blood samples were obtained at inclusion. The presence of RSV and hMPV RNA was detected using real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: We detected RSV RNA in 28 saliva specimens, 5 stool samples, and 3 sweat samples. hMPV RNA was detected in one saliva specimen and two sweat samples. Four of the five children shedding RNA in faeces had diarrhoea and children shedding RNA in sweat were either less than five weeks of age or had a chronic lung disease. RSV and hMPV RNA was shed in nasal secretions for a median of 11.5 and 5.0 days respectively (p = 0.001). More than 75% of the family members of the infected children showed to have an upper respiratory tract infection when following up. CONCLUSION: Viral RNA was present in nasal secretions, saliva, sweat, and faeces, but whether or not the virions were infectious and constitute a potential mode of transmission remains to be shown in future studies.
PubMed ID
17052968 View in PubMed
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Gestational weight gain as a predictor of birth and placenta weight according to pre-pregnancy body mass index

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature59092
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1997 Apr;76(4):300-307
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1997
Author
Zhou, W
Olsen, J
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Social Science, Danish Epidemiology Science Centre, Aarhus University, Denmark.
Source
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1997 Apr;76(4):300-307
Date
Apr-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Body mass index
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Pregnancy - physiology
Prognosis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Weight Gain
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between gestational weight gain and different birth weight indicators considering the pre-pregnancy body mass index. It was hypothesized that a high body mass index (BMI) would modify the effect of gestational weight gain and support the advice of keeping gestational weight gain at a moderate level in case of obesity. STUDY DESIGN: A follow-up study of consecutively recruited women in two well defined geographical areas in Denmark. The recruitment lasted from 1984 to 1987 and 11,850 pregnant women and newborns were included in the study. The remaining analyses were restricted to non-diabetic women who gave birth between weeks 37 and 42 of gestation for whom weight gain was reported-altogether 7,122 women. RESULTS: Birth and placenta weight were associated with gestational weight gain but with lower regression coefficients at higher BMI. The proportion of newborns with a birth weight of 4,500 grams or more increased with increasing gestational weight gain, especially in women with a BMI above 26. CONCLUSION: The potential benefit of a high gestational weight gain in obese patients should be balanced by the higher risk of giving birth to babies with a birth weight of more than 4,500 grams and the risk of exaggerating a pre-existing state of obesity.
PubMed ID
9174421 View in PubMed
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Health research in Greenland: Start with the children

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29887
Source
Pages 153-155 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
. 12. Bjerregaard P, Mulvad G, Olsen J. Studying Health in Greenland. Int J Circumpolar Health 2003:62:5-16. 13. Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland. Strategi for dansk-gronlandsk polarforskning 2003- 2007. [in Danish] Gert Mulvad Centre of Primary Health Care Box !00 I DK 3900
  1 document  
Author
Mulvad, G
Pedersen, HS
Olsen, J
Author Affiliation
Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland. gm@gh.gl
Source
Pages 153-155 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Greenland
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Biomedical research
Child
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Public Health
Abstract
We believe that public health should take a life-course approach, starting at conception, or at best before, at the time of pregnancy planning, and focus upon living conditions for children. Most of the determinants of life expectancy are established early in life.
PubMed ID
15736642 View in PubMed
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Leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83931
Source
BJOG. 2007 Nov;114(11):1419-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2007
Author
Madsen M.
Jørgensen T.
Jensen M L
Juhl M.
Olsen J.
Andersen P K
Nybo Andersen A-M
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Health, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
Source
BJOG. 2007 Nov;114(11):1419-26
Date
Nov-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between leisure time physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. DESIGN: Prospective study with elements of retrospective data collection. SETTING: Denmark 1996-2002. POPULATION: A total of 92,671 pregnant women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort and interviewed subsequently. METHODS: Data on exercise during pregnancy and potential confounders were obtained through computer-assisted telephone interviews either during pregnancy or after an early miscarriage. Outcome of pregnancy was identified by register linkage. Using Cox regression analysis, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) of miscarriage according to weekly amount of exercise and the type of exercise. The HR was estimated for
PubMed ID
17877774 View in PubMed
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Prenatal alcohol exposure and cryptorchidism.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature87546
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2007 Nov;96(11):1681-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2007
Author
Jensen M S
Bonde J P
Olsen J.
Author Affiliation
Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark. morten@sondergaard-jensen.dk
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2007 Nov;96(11):1681-5
Date
Nov-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects
Analysis of Variance
Cryptorchidism - chemically induced - epidemiology - surgery
Denmark
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Logistic Models
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Maternal-Fetal Exchange
Medical Records
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Smoking
Abstract
AIM: A recently published study reported markedly increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys whose mothers had an average gestational alcohol intake of five or more drinks per week. The aim of this study is to follow up on this finding by estimating the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and persistent cryptorchidism. METHODS: We used prospectively collected information on prenatal exposures and obstetric information on the birth of 5716 boys, collected from 1984 to 1987. During the 16-19 years of follow-up in a nationwide patient register, 270 cases of cryptorchidism were diagnosed and 185 of these boys underwent orchiopexy. RESULTS: No positive association between the mothers' average weekly alcohol consumption and persistent cryptorchidism was observed. Binge drinking was nonsignificantly associated with an excess risk of orchiopexy (adjusted RR = 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.1), but not with having a diagnosis of cryptorchidism without orchiopexy. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' average weekly alcohol intake was not associated with persistent cryptorchidism, but binge drinking may be a risk factor.
PubMed ID
17888049 View in PubMed
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Proton pump inhibitors and risk of gastric cancer: a population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature89390
Source
Br J Cancer. 2009 May 5;100(9):1503-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-5-2009
Author
Poulsen A H
Christensen S.
McLaughlin J K
Thomsen R W
Sørensen H T
Olsen J H
Friis S.
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. aslak@cancer.dk
Source
Br J Cancer. 2009 May 5;100(9):1503-7
Date
May-5-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adenocarcinoma - epidemiology
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Histamine H2 Antagonists - adverse effects
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Proton Pump Inhibitors - adverse effects
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use leads to hypergastrinaemia, which has been associated with gastrointestinal neoplasia. We evaluated the association between PPI use and risk of gastric cancer using population-based health-care registers in North Jutland, Denmark, during 1990-2003. We compared incidence rates among new users of PPI (n=18,790) or histamine-2-antagonists (H2RAs) (n=17,478) and non-users of either drug. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for multiple confounders. We incorporated a 1-year lag time to address potential reverse causation. We identified 109 gastric cancer cases among PPI users and 52 cases among H2RA users. After incorporating the 1-year lag time, we observed IRRs for gastric cancer of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8-2.0) among PPI users and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.8-1.8) among H2RA users compared with non-users. These estimates are in contrast to significant overall IRRs of 9.0 and 2.8, respectively, without the lag time. In lag time analyses, increased IRRs were observed among PPI users with the largest number of prescriptions or the longest follow-up compared with H2RA users or non-users. Although our results point to a major influence of reverse causation and confounding by indication on the association between PPI use and gastric cancer incidence, the finding of increased incidence among PPI users with most prescriptions and longest follow-up warrants further investigation.
PubMed ID
19352380 View in PubMed
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Radiotherapy for childhood cancer and risk for congenital malformations in offspring: a population-based cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature91188
Source
Clin Genet. 2009 Jan;75(1):50-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2009
Author
Winther J F
Boice J D
Frederiksen K.
Bautz A.
Mulvihill J J
Stovall M.
Olsen J H
Author Affiliation
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. jeanette@cancer.dk
Source
Clin Genet. 2009 Jan;75(1):50-6
Date
Jan-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities, Radiation-Induced - epidemiology
Adult
Child
Cohort Studies
Congenital Abnormalities - epidemiology - etiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Male
Maternal Exposure - adverse effects
Neoplasms - radiotherapy
Paternal Exposure - adverse effects
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Outcome - genetics
Risk factors
Abstract
Offspring of childhood cancer survivors may be at risk of genetic disease due to the mutagenic cancer treatments received by their parents. Congenital malformations were evaluated in a population-based cohort study of 1715 offspring of 3963 childhood cancer survivors and 6009 offspring of 5657 survivors' siblings. The Danish Central Population Register, Cancer Registry and Hospital Register were used to identify study subjects and congenital malformations. Gonadal and uterine radiation doses were characterized based on standard radiation-treatment regimens. The prevalence of congenital malformations at birth in offspring of survivors (44 cases, 2.6%) was slightly higher but not statistically different from that of offspring of siblings (140 cases, 2.3%) [prevalence proportion ratio (PPR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.5] or of the general population (observed-to-expected ratio, 1.2; 0.9-1.6). Including malformations diagnosed later in life did not change the ratios appreciably. The risk for malformations was slightly higher in the offspring of irradiated parents than in that of non-irradiated parents (PPR 1.2 vs 1.0) but was unrelated to gonadal dose. This study provides evidence that cancer therapy of children does not increase the risk for malformations in their offspring. Continued monitoring of genetic risks among their offspring, however, is warranted.
PubMed ID
19021636 View in PubMed
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18 records – page 1 of 2.