BACKGROUND: Inuit traditional food provides ample amounts of preformed vitamin A. However, the dietary transition away from traditional food raises concerns regarding dietary adequacy. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient with inadequate and excessive exposures having adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate total dietary vitamin A intake for Canadian Inuit from market food and traditional food sources and to evaluate retinol concentrations in liver and blubber. METHODS: Dietary surveys were conducted in 18 communities representing 5 Inuit regions, and traditional food items were evaluated for nutrient content. RESULTS: Among those 15-40 years of age, 68% of men and 60% of women had a dietary vitamin A intake below the estimated average requirement (EAR) for retinol activity equivalents (RAE)/day. Among those over 40 years of age, only 11 % of men and 15% of women had a dietary vitamin A intake below the EAR. Young Inuit men had a relative risk of 6.2 (95% CI= 4.5-8.4), and young Inuit women had a relative risk of 4.0 (95% CI= 3.1-5.0) for dietary inadequacy compared to the older Inuit men and women, respectively. The median retinol content of liver of ringed seal, caribou, and fish were comparable to levels observed in market food liver. Liver was less frequently consumed by those 15-40 years of age than among older Inuit. DISCUSSION: Sub-optimal vitamin A intake is the predominant nutritional concern rather than excessive exposures. Public health education campaigns are needed to improve vitamin A intake among the younger generations of Inuit men and women.
To understand more specifically how the quality, quantity and frequency of snack food consumption differs in different BMI categories.
Four hundred and forty-nine school-aged children (grade 4-6) from a Kanien'kehaka (Mohawk) community provided a 24 h recall and their height and weight in 1994, 1998 and 2002, in three independent cross-sectional samples. Food consumed between two consecutive meals was defined as a snacking occasion. ANOVA and chi2 tests were used to compare food choices between BMI categories according to food quality criteria and food groups in 2006. Logistic regression models were performed to compare results between normal-weight children and those at risk of overweight and between normal-weight and overweight children.
Energy intake from snacks tended to be higher for children at risk of overweight, compared with the other two BMI categories. Food groups with a higher energy density were also consumed more frequently by these children, with larger average portions of cereal bars (P
The present analyses aim to identify differences in selected dimensions of diet quality and quantity across body mass index (BMI) categories for Mohawk children in grades 4 through 6 so as to enhance ongoing community intervention strategies within the Kahnawake School Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP). Using 24-hour recalls (n=444), no observable differences in energy intake, percent fat, energy density, or diet diversity across BMI categories were observed. Using a new method, we compared the frequency of use and the amounts consumed for only the most-frequently consumed food items across BMI categories. Compared to normal-weight children, and after adjusting for age, children "at risk of overweight" consume potato chips more frequently (P=0.017) and crackers less frequently (P=0.153), while overweight children consumed larger portions of french fries (P=0.027). We conclude that, in this group of children, consuming slightly more french fries or potato chips than what is already consumed by normal-weight children appears to compromise diet quality as far as overweight is concerned.
Food composition data were determined for food consumed by 226 Inuit women in Nunavik, estimating the relative contribution of traditional and market food for energy, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin D, iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Traditional Inuit food was an important source of protein, vitamin D, iron, selenium, and phosphorus, as well as the main source of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The mean contribution of traditional and market food to energy and nutrients was analyzed according to age groups (18-39 and 40-74). Analysis of Inuit women's nutrient intake showed that the contribution of traditional food was greater in the older group than in the younger group, for whom the contribution of market food was greater. Market food contributed the most to Inuit women's energy intake, while 40% of the intake of several nutrients, including protein, vitamin D, iron, phosphorus, and zinc, was derived from traditional food. Inuit women had low vitamin A and calcium intakes. Traditional food had low calcium and vitamin A concentrations, and the Inuit infrequently consumed market food such as milk, dairy products, and yellow and green vegetables. Thus, even though the present study showed that traditional food was the major source of many nutrients in the Inuit diet, market food was also important for the nutritional status of this population, particularly young women. In promoting safe nutritional habits among the Inuit, dietitians must help them maintain traditional food use, which has provided some health advantages (e.g., a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease); encourage consumption of nutritious market foods; and consider the societal values reflected in the traditional diet.
To determine the correlates of a high-fat diet in urban, suburban and rural areas of Quebec, Canada.
A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a 5-year multi-factorial, multi-setting, community-intervention project.
Urban, suburban and rural settings of the province of Quebec, 1997.
Data were analysed from a sample of 5214 participants (2227 males, 2987 females). A food-frequency questionnaire was completed and a global index of food quality was calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of a diet high in total fats, saturated fat and cholesterol.
In both genders, lower level of education, smoking status, French and English languages compared with other languages spoken at home, and a rural environment were associated with poor diet quality. Having no intention to eat low-fat dairy products more often was associated with a high-fat diet. In men, obesity (body mass index >/=30 kg m(-2)) and absence of reported health problems were correlates of a high-fat diet, while, in women, lower physical activity was a correlate.
Future health interventions in Quebec should target people with low education, smokers and those living in a rural environment. Obese men and sedentary women should have access to specific dietetic resources.
Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n?=?62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n?=?192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products.
OBJECTIVES: Chronic non-communicable diseases related to excessive or unbalanced dietary intakes are on the rise among some Indigenous populations in Canada. Nutritional problems of Indigenous peoples arise in the transition from a traditional diet to a market diet characterized by highly processed foods with reduced nutrient density. This study aimed at assessing traditional food intake of Indigenous people in 18 communities. STUDY DESIGN: This study was cross-sectional with a sample size of 1,356. METHODS: This study used food frequency and 24-hour recall questionnaires to quantify traditional food intake in 18 communities in the McKenzie basin of the Northwest Territories (Denendeh and the Yukon). RESULTS: Typical daily intakes of groups of traditional food items were generated and intake of an extensive list of traditional food detailed for adult men and women. Per capita intake of traditional food items was also calculated. CONCLUSION: Reliance on traditional food intake is still high in Denendeh, as well as in the Yukon. The detailed description of the traditional food system presented here allows an accurate identification of the contribution of traditional food items to nutrient and contaminant intake by Indigenous people for future studies.
To identify barriers to traditional food consumption and factors that facilitate it among the Cree community of Mistissini, a series of four focus groups was conducted with a total of twenty-three people. Two ecological models were created, one for facilitating factors and a second for obstacles, illustrating the role of numerous interconnected influences of traditional food consumption. Environmental impact project, laws and regulation, local businesses, traditional knowledge, youth influence, employment status, and nonconvenience of traditional food were named among numerous factors influencing traditional food consumption. The findings of this study can be used by political and public health organizations to promote traditional food where more emphasis should be invested in community and environmental strategies.
In evaluating adequacy of nutrient intake and relative contribution of locally harvested food (i.e., "traditional" food) and imported market food for 164 Baffin Inuit children and adolescents, 604 24-hour recalls were obtained over a one-year period (1987 to 1988). Market food contributed an average of 84% of dietary energy and traditional food, 16%. Total and saturated fat intakes corresponded closely to current recommendations, while sucrose intakes were higher than recommended. Most age and gender categories had a low prevalence of inadequate intakes of iron, zinc, and protein; over 50% of dietary iron and zinc was provided by traditional food. Calcium and vitamin A were obtained largely through market food, and there was a high risk of inadequacy for both nutrients in all age groups. The diets of 16-18-year-old girls were the most often inadequate, due to high consumption of low nutrient-dense food and low consumption of traditional food. Food items rich in vitamin A and calcium should be promoted, and 16-18-year-old girls specifically targeted for education on food choices and health.
Determinants of self-efficacy related to food preparation using store-bought food were examined in women belonging to the Atikamekw Nation. Also examined was whether self-efficacy was associated with household food insecurity.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 107 women responsible for household food supplies. Two self-efficacy scores were calculated, one for healthy food preparation and one for food preparation in general. Household food insecurity was measured with an adapted version of the United States Food Security Core Module. The other variables were household composition, income sources, food supplies, tobacco use, participants' health status, and lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze associations between self-efficacy and household food insecurity in 99 participants.
Severe household food insecurity was associated with significantly lower healthy food preparation scores in Atikamekw women. Other associated variables were food supplies, marital status, alcohol consumption, weight status, and understanding of the native language.
Application of the concept of self-efficacy contributes to a better understanding of the factors influencing food preparation in Atikamekw women. In this study, self-efficacy in healthy food preparation was linked to food insecurity and obesity, particularly in the most serious cases. Efforts to improve diet will require not only behavioural interventions, but public policies.