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Alcohol, smoking, and drug use among Inuit women of childbearing age during pregnancy and the risk to children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136911
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jun;35(6):1081-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2011
Author
Gina Muckle
Dominique Laflamme
Jocelyne Gagnon
Olivier Boucher
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Author Affiliation
Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Research Center, Quebec City, QC, Canada. gina.muckle@psy.ulaval.ca
Source
Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Jun;35(6):1081-91
Date
Jun-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol Drinking - adverse effects - ethnology
Ethanol - poisoning
Female
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders - ethnology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Inuits - ethnology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - ethnology - etiology
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - ethnology
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects - ethnology
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - ethnology
Young Adult
Abstract
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking is a well-known public health concern.
This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified.
Two hundred and eight Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented.
Ninety-two percent of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which correspond to 38% of pregnant women. Thirty-six percent of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy, and the number of young children living with the mother.
These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21332531 View in PubMed
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Altered fine motor function at school age in Inuit children exposed to PCBs, methylmercury, and lead.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature275653
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Aug 26;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-26-2016
  1 document  
Author
Olivier Boucher
Gina Muckle
Pierre Ayotte
Eric Dewailly
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Source
Environ Int. 2016 Aug 26;
Date
Aug-26-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
371758
Abstract
Motor deficits have frequently been reported in methylmercury (MeHg) poisoning in adults. However, whether exposure to neurotoxic contaminants from environmental sources early in life is associated with neuromotor impairments has received relatively little attention. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to MeHg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and lead to motor function in school-age Inuit children exposed through their traditional diet.
In a prospective study in Nunavik, children (mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a battery of fine motor tasks, namely the Stanford-Binet Copying subtest (N=262), the Santa Ana Form Board, and the Finger Tapping Test (N=215). The relation of mercury (Hg; as an index of MeHg exposure), PCB congener 153 (PCB153), and lead concentrations in cord and current blood samples to task performance was examined using linear regression analyses.
After adjustment for potential confounders and control for the other contaminants, higher current PCB concentrations were associated with poorer Santa Ana Form Board and Finger Tapping performance. Results were virtually identical when PCB153 was replaced by other PCB congeners. Higher current Hg levels were independently associated with poorer Finger Tapping performance.
This is the first prospective longitudinal study in children to provide evidence of neuromotor impairments associated with postnatal exposure to seafood contaminants from environmental sources. Fine motor speed appears particularly sensitive to the effects of postnatal PCB exposure, which is unusually high in this population. Results with postnatal MeHg are concordant with previous cross-sectional studies with children and adults.
PubMed ID
27575364 View in PubMed
Documents
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Association between early lead exposure and externalizing behaviors in adolescence: A developmental cascade.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature302836
Source
Environ Res. 2019 Nov; 178:108679
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2019
Author
Mireille Desrochers-Couture
Yohann Courtemanche
Nadine Forget-Dubois
Richard E Bélanger
Olivier Boucher
Pierre Ayotte
Sylvaine Cordier
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Author Affiliation
Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 2019 Nov; 178:108679
Date
Nov-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Lead (Pb) exposure is associated with adverse neurological development. Most notably, it has been observed through externalizing behavior symptoms, as observed among Inuit children from northern Québec. Evidence for a persistent neurological impact of early Pb exposure later in life is however scarce. Pb exposure may initiate a developmental cascade that increases the risk of long-term behavior problems.
Testing for direct associations between childhood Pb concentrations and adolescent externalizing symptoms and substance use, as well as indirect associations through childhood behavior assessments.
The study sample is a longitudinal cohort of Inuit children (n?=?212) followed since birth. Blood Pb concentrations were measured during childhood (median age?=?11.4 years) and adolescence (median age?=?18.5 years). Externalizing/inattentive behavior were teacher-assessed through the Teacher Report Form and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale for children. At the adolescence follow-up, behavior problems were self-reported by filling Achenbach's Youth Self-Report, the Barkley Adult ADHD-IV Rating Scale, and the Diagnostics Interview Schedule for Children. Adolescent substance use was also self-assessed through the DEP-ADO. Direct and indirect associations of child Pb concentrations with adolescent outcomes were tested through mediation models.
Child blood Pb concentrations were not directly associated with any adolescent outcomes. On the contrary, childhood Pb exposure was indirectly associated, through childhood externalizing behavior assessments, with adolescent externalizing behaviors, binge drinking, and cannabis use. These indirect associations held after controlling for adolescents' concurrent Pb blood concentrations.
Our results highlight the indirect but lasting effects of child Pb exposure on adolescent behavior problems, and the importance of childhood externalizing behavior in this relationship. Adverse early-life environment put children on a riskier developmental trajectory, increasing their likelihood of lifelong psychological, social and health problems.
PubMed ID
31454729 View in PubMed
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Associations between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and externalized behaviors at school age among Inuit children exposed to environmental contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258359
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Publication Type
Article
  1 document  
Author
Caroline Desrosiers
Olivier Boucher
Nadine Forget-Dubois
Eric Dewailly
Pierre Ayotte
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Author Affiliation
Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada; Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2013 Sep-Oct;39:84-90
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
63846
Keywords
Attention - drug effects
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - chemically induced - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - chemically induced - psychology
Child
Drug Interactions
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - toxicity
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Inuits - psychology
Lead Poisoning, Nervous System, Childhood - blood - psychology
Male
Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System - blood - psychology
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - psychology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Abstract
Smoking during pregnancy is common among Inuit women from the Canadian Arctic. Yet prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) is seen as a major risk factor for childhood behavior problems. Recent data also suggest that co-exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants can exacerbate the effects of PCSE on behavior. This study examined the association between PCSE and behavior at school age in a sample of Inuit children from Nunavik, Qu?bec, where co-exposure to environmental contaminants is also an important issue. Interactions with lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), two contaminants associated with behavioral problems, were also explored.
Participants were 271 children (mean age=11.3years) involved in a prospective birth-cohort study. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Assessment of child behavior was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD). Exposure to contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. Other confounders were documented by maternal interview.
After control for contaminants and confounders, PCSE was associated with increased externalizing behaviors and attention problems on the TRF and higher prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed on the DBD. No interactions were found with contaminants.
This study extends the existing empirical evidence linking PCSE to behavioral problems in school-aged children by reporting these effects in a population where tobacco use is normative rather than marginal. Co-exposure to Pb and Hg do not appear to exacerbate tobacco effects, suggesting that these substances act independently.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23916943 View in PubMed
Documents
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Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature257993
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Mar;122(3):310-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2014
  1 document  
Author
Olivier Boucher
Gina Muckle
Joseph L Jacobson
R Colin Carter
Melissa Kaplan-Estrin
Pierre Ayotte
Éric Dewailly
Sandra W Jacobson
Author Affiliation
Centre de Recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Mar;122(3):310-6
Date
Mar-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
260025
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child Development - drug effects
Cognition - drug effects
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Humans
Infant
Inuits
Lead - blood - toxicity
Male
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - epidemiology
Quebec - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), methylmercury (MeHg), and lead (Pb) are environmental contaminants known for their adverse effects on cognitive development.
In this study we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, MeHg, and Pb on cognitive development in a sample of Inuit infants from Arctic Qu?bec.
Mothers were recruited at local prenatal clinics. PCBs, mercury (Hg), Pb, and two seafood nutrients-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se)-were measured in umbilical cord blood. Infants (n = 94) were assessed at 6.5 and 11 months of age on the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence (FTII), A-not-B test, and Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2nd Edition (BSID-II).
Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with decreased FTII novelty preference, indicating impaired visual recognition memory. Prenatal Hg was associated with poorer performance on A-not-B, which depends on working memory and is believed to be a precursor of executive function. Prenatal Pb was related to longer FTII fixation durations, indicating slower speed of information processing.
PCBs, MeHg, and Pb each showed specific and distinct patterns of adverse associations with the outcomes measured during infancy. By contrast, none of these exposures was associated with performance on the BSID-II, a global developmental measure. The more focused, narrow band measures of cognitive function that appeared to be sensitive to these exposures also provide early indications of long-term impairment in specific domains that would otherwise not likely be evident until school age.
Boucher O, Muckle G, Jacobson JL, Carter RC, Kaplan-Estrin M, Ayotte P, Dewailly ?, Jacobson SW. 2014. Domain-specific effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs, mercury, and lead on infant cognition: results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik. Environ Health Perspect 122:310-316; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206323.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24441767 View in PubMed
Documents
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Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136323
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May;93(5):1025-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Olivier Boucher
Matthew J Burden
Gina Muckle
Dave Saint-Amour
Pierre Ayotte
Eric Dewailly
Charles A Nelson
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Author Affiliation
Université Laval, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May;93(5):1025-37
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Arctic Regions
Child
Child Behavior - drug effects
Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Docosahexaenoic Acids - blood
Electroencephalography - drug effects
Fatty Acids, Omega-3 - administration & dosage
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Memory - drug effects - physiology
Memory Disorders - prevention & control
Pregnancy
Quebec
Recognition (Psychology) - drug effects
Seafood
Water Pollutants, Chemical - blood
Abstract
The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood.
The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community.
In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version.
Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory.
To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21389181 View in PubMed
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Prenatal exposure to methylmercury and PCBs affects distinct stages of information processing: an event-related potential study with Inuit children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97290
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2010 Aug;31(4):373-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
Olivier Boucher
Célyne H Bastien
Dave Saint-Amour
Eric Dewailly
Pierre Ayotte
Joseph L Jacobson
Sandra W Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Author Affiliation
Ecole de Psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
Source
Neurotoxicology. 2010 Aug;31(4):373-84
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are seafood contaminants known for their adverse effects on neurodevelopment. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to these contaminants to information processing assessed with event-related potentials (ERPs) in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). In a prospective longitudinal study on child development, exposure to contaminants was measured at birth and 11 years of age. An auditory oddball protocol was administered at 11 years to measure ERP components N1 and P3b. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of levels of the contaminants to auditory oddball performance (mean reaction time, omission errors and false alarms) and ERP parameters (latency and amplitude) after control for potential confounding variables. A total of 118 children provided useable ERP data. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with slower reaction times and fewer false alarms during the oddball task. Analyses of the ERP parameters revealed that prenatal MeHg exposure was related to greater amplitude and delayed latency of the N1 wave in the target condition but not to the P3b component. MeHg effects on the N1 were stronger after control for seafood nutrients. Prenatal PCB exposure was not related to any endpoint for sample as a whole but was associated with a decrease in P3b amplitude in the subgroup of children who had been breast-fed for less than 3 months. Body burdens of MeHg and PCBs at 11 years were not related to any of the behavioural or ERP measures. These data suggest that prenatal MeHg exposure alters attentional mechanisms modulating early processing of sensory information. By contrast, prenatal PCB exposure appears to affect information processing at later stages, when the information is being consciously evaluated. These effects seem to be mitigated in children who are breast-fed for a more extended period.
PubMed ID
20403381 View in PubMed
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Prenatal methylmercury, postnatal lead exposure, and evidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among Inuit children in Arctic Qu├ębec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120407
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1456-61
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2012
Author
Olivier Boucher
Sandra W Jacobson
Pierrich Plusquellec
Eric Dewailly
Pierre Ayotte
Nadine Forget-Dubois
Joseph L Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Author Affiliation
Centre de Recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Québec, Québec, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1456-61
Date
Oct-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - chemically induced - ethnology - etiology
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology - ethnology
Child
Child Behavior
Child Behavior Disorders - chemically induced - epidemiology - ethnology
Chromatography, Gas
Conduct Disorder - chemically induced - epidemiology - ethnology
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Lead - blood - toxicity
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Mass Spectrometry
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - toxicity
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - chemically induced - epidemiology - ethnology
Prospective Studies
Quebec - epidemiology
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Abstract
Prenatal exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated with impaired performance on attention tasks in previous studies, but the extent to which these cognitive deficits translate into behavioral problems in the classroom and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unknown. By contrast, lead (Pb) exposure in childhood has been associated with ADHD and disruptive behaviors in several studies.
In this study we examined the relation of developmental exposure to MeHg, PCBs, and Pb to behavioral problems at school age in Inuit children exposed through their traditional diet.
In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic, exposure to contaminants was measured at birth and at school age. An assessment of child behavior (n = 279; mean age = 11.3 years) was obtained from the child's classroom teacher on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) from the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (DBD).
Cord blood mercury concentrations were associated with higher TRF symptom scores for attention problems and DBD scores consistent with ADHD. Current blood Pb concentrations were associated with higher TRF symptom scores for externalizing problems and with symptoms of ADHD (hyperactive-impulsive type) based on the DBD.
To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify an association between prenatal MeHg and ADHD symptomatology in childhood and the first to replicate previously reported associations between low-level childhood Pb exposure and ADHD in a population exposed to Pb primarily from dietary sources.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23008274 View in PubMed
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Prenatal tobacco exposure and response inhibition in school-aged children: an event-related potential study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261091
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2014 Jul-Aug;44:81-8
Publication Type
Article
  1 document  
Author
Olivier Boucher
Joseph L Jacobson
Matthew J Burden
Éric Dewailly
Sandra W Jacobson
Gina Muckle
Source
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2014 Jul-Aug;44:81-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
File Size
949853
Keywords
Brain - drug effects - physiopathology
Child
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Female
Humans
Inhibition (Psychology)
Male
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - physiopathology - psychology
Smoke - adverse effects
Tobacco - adverse effects
Abstract
Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) has been linked to problems in behavioral inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children in several epidemiological studies. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of PCSE on neural correlates of inhibitory control of behavior. In a prospective longitudinal study on child development in the Canadian Arctic, we assessed 186 Inuit children (mean age=11.3years) on a visual Go/No-go response inhibition paradigm. PCSE was assessed through maternal recall. Potential confounders were documented from a maternal interview, and exposure to neurotoxic environmental contaminants was assessed from umbilical cord and child blood samples. PCSE was not related to behavioral performance on this simple response inhibition task. Nevertheless, this exposure was associated with smaller amplitudes of the N2 and P3 components elicited by No-go stimuli, suggesting an impairment in the neural processes underlying response inhibition. Amplitude of the No-go P3 component was also inversely associated with behavioral measures of externalizing problems and hyperactivity/impulsivity in the classroom. This study is the first to report neurophysiological evidence of impaired response inhibition in school-aged children exposed to tobacco smoke in utero. Effects were found on ERP components associated with conflict processing and inhibition of a prepotent response, indicating neurophysiological deficits that may play a critical role in the attention and behavior problems observed in children with PCSE.
PubMed ID
24946039 View in PubMed
Documents
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Response inhibition and error monitoring during a visual go/no-go task in inuit children exposed to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129096
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Apr;120(4):608-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2012
Author
Olivier Boucher
Matthew J Burden
Gina Muckle
Dave Saint-Amour
Pierre Ayotte
Éric Dewailly
Charles A Nelson
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Author Affiliation
Centre de recherche du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Apr;120(4):608-15
Date
Apr-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Electroencephalography
Environmental Pollutants - blood - toxicity
Evoked Potentials, Visual
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Inhibition (Psychology)
Inuits
Lead - blood - toxicity
Longitudinal Studies
Methylmercury Compounds - blood - toxicity
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - blood - toxicity
Prospective Studies
Psychomotor Performance
Quebec
Reaction Time
Spectrophotometry, Atomic
Abstract
Lead (Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are neurotoxic contaminants that have been related to impairment in response inhibition.
In this study we examined the neurophysiological correlates of the response inhibition deficits associated with these exposures, using event-related potentials (ERPs) in a sample of school-age Inuit children from Arctic Québec exposed through their traditional diet.
In a prospective longitudinal study, we assessed 196 children (mean age, 11.3 years) on a visual go/no-go response inhibition paradigm. Pb, PCB, and mercury (Hg) concentrations were analyzed in cord and current blood samples. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations of contaminant levels to go/no-go performance (mean reaction time, percent correct go, percent correct no-go) and five ERPs [N2, P3, error-related negativity, error positivity (Pe), and correct response positivity (Pc)] after control for confounding variables.
Current blood Pb concentrations were associated with higher rates of false alarms and with decreased P3 amplitudes to go and no-go trials. Current plasma PCB-153 concentrations were associated with slower reaction times and with reduced amplitudes of the Pe and Pc response-related potentials. Hg concentrations were not related to any outcome on this task but showed significant interactions with other contaminants on certain outcomes.
These results suggest that Pb exposure during childhood impairs the child's ability to allocate the cognitive resources needed to correctly inhibit a prepotent response, resulting in increased impulsivity. By contrast, postnatal PCB exposure appears to affect processes associated with error monitoring, an aspect of behavioral regulation required to adequately adapt to the changing demands of the environment, which results in reduced task efficiency.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22142904 View in PubMed
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