To examine the 1-month prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), and the overlap between these criteria, in a population sample of 75-year-olds. We also aimed to examine comorbidity between GAD and other psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression.
During 2005-2006, a comprehensive semistructured psychiatric interview was conducted by trained nurses in a representative population sample of 75-year-olds without dementia in Gothenburg, Sweden (N = 777; 299 men and 478 women). All psychiatric diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. GAD was also diagnosed according to ICD-10 and DSM-V.
The 1-month prevalence of GAD was 4.1% (N = 32) according to DSM-IV, 4.5% (N = 35) according to DSM-V, and 3.7% (N = 29) according to ICD-10. Only 46.9% of those with DSM-IV GAD fulfilled ICD-10 criteria, and only 51.7% and 44.8% of those with ICD-10 GAD fulfilled DSM-IV/V criteria. Instead, 84.4% and 74.3% of those with DSM-IV/V GAD and 89.7% of those with ICD-10 GAD had depression. Also other psychiatric diagnoses were common in those with ICD-10 and DSM-IV GAD. Only a small minority with GAD, irrespective of criteria, had no other comorbid psychiatric disorder. ICD-10 GAD was related to an increased mortality rate.
While GAD was common in 75-year-olds, DSM-IV/V and ICD-10 captured different individuals. Current definitions of GAD may comprise two different expressions of the disease. There was greater congruence between GAD in either classification system and depression than between DSM-IV/V GAD and ICD-10 GAD, emphasizing the close link between these entities.
PURPOSE: To study the clinical evaluation and treatment of patients with asthma and COPD in primary care in Sweden, with a focus on adherence to recommended guidelines and quality indicators. METHODS: All visits at health care centres in Skaraborg, Sweden, are documented in computerized medical records constituting the Skaraborg Primary Care Database (SPCD). In a register-based retrospective observational study, all patients diagnosed with asthma or COPD during 2000-2005 (n = 12,328) were identified. In a 5% random sample (n = 623), information on performed investigations at initial visits and at follow-up during 2004-2005 was collected. Compliance with procedures as recommended by national guidelines was used for quality assessment. RESULTS: Among 499 patients with asthma, 167 (33%) were investigated with spirometry or Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) during initial visits in agreement with guidelines. Correspondingly, 40 out of 124 patients with COPD (32%) were investigated with spirometry. During follow-up, evaluation in agreement with guidelines was performed in 130 (60%) of patients with asthma and in 35 patients out of 77 (45%) with COPD. Prescribing of ICS reached quality target, still every second patient made an acute visit during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Adherence to recommended guidelines in asthma/COPD was low. Acute visits were common and despite the prescribing of ICS according to recommendations, patients still seem uncontrolled in their disease. There is a need for quality improvement in the clinical evaluation and treatment of patients with asthma and COPD.
Between 24 February and 26 April 2004, Västra Götaland county in Sweden reported 42 cases of suspected mumps. A descriptive study of the cases was undertaken. A questionnaire was administered by telephone and vaccine effectiveness was calculated using the screening method. Seventy four per cent (31/42) of the suspected cases were interviewed by telephone. Eight out of the 42 serum samples were positive or equivocal for mumps IgM by ELISA. Mumps virus genome was identified in 21/42 (50%) saliva samples. Eleven were selected for sequencing and all were confirmed to be mumps virus. Cases were predominantly from 2 small towns. Eighteen out of 19 cases that developed bilateral swelling could be linked to one small town. The median age of interviewed cases was 43 years (range 5 to 88). Six cases were admitted to hospital, 5 of which were older than 30 years. The highest incidence occurred in the 35 to 44 years age group. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be 65% for 1 dose and 91% for 2 doses. This descriptive study shows the increasing age of mumps cases with increasing vaccine coverage. Vaccine effectiveness was particularly high for 2 doses. Second-dose uptake must be ensured, as primary vaccine failure is well documented in mumps. Stronger precautions must be taken to avoid pools of susceptible older individuals accumulating due to the increased risk of complications.
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of non-smoking individuals with severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ) have been sparse and included only a limited number of individuals, mostly identified by respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to estimate the prognosis of non-smoking PiZZ individuals and to analyse the most common causes of death by including a large number of individuals who had been identified by other means than respiratory symptoms. METHODS: The study included 568 non-smoking PiZZ subjects who were selected from the Swedish National AAT Deficiency Registry and followed up from 1991 to September 2007. Of these, 156 (27%) were identified by respiratory symptoms (respiratory cases) and 412 were identified by extrapulmonary symptoms or screening (non-respiratory cases). RESULTS: 93 subjects (16%) died during the follow-up period. The specific standardised mortality rate (SMR) for the whole study population was 2.32 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.83) with no significant difference between men and women. The SMR was 2.55 (95% CI 1.91 to 2.83) for the respiratory cases and 2.07 (95% CI 1.49 to 2.81) for the non-respiratory cases. Further calculation of SMR for subgroups in the non-respiratory cases showed that the SMR was 0.70 (95% CI 0.14 to 2.04) for individuals identified by family/population screening. Emphysema and liver cirrhosis were the most common causes of death (45% and 28%, respectively). Malignant transformation was found in 38% of the cases with cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking PiZZ individuals identified by screening do not have an increased mortality risk compared with the Swedish general population.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between Swedish drug sales data per municipality and morbidity per municipality. The morbidity was expressed as "sickness numbers" which are assumed to function as proxy for morbidity. METHODS: Sickness numbers per municipality were correlated to volumes of drug sales per municipality in 2003. In addition, the sales volumes of antibiotics were correlated to the sales volumes of other drugs. RESULTS: We found significant positive correlations between municipality sickness numbers and sales volumes for most drug groups, except for antibiotics where the correlations were negative in all age groups. When the volumes of antibiotics were related to the volumes of other drug groups it was observed that municipalities with volumes of antibiotics above the national average had reduced volumes of cardiovascular drugs, especially of diuretics, beta blockers and calcium antagonists, all primarily used as antihypertensives. For ACE inhibitors and statins, no such relationship was found. CONCLUSION: The findings might suggest a link between infection and hypertension, but a cause-effect relation is not established.
PURPOSE: To explore the possibility of using dispensed volumes asthma/COPD drugs as a proxy for the combined prevalence of asthma plus COPD. METHODS: The proportions of the Swedish population with inhalation drugs for asthma/COPD 2004 were obtained using three different databases. A pharmacy record database gave the volumes of dispensed drugs (defined daily doses, DDDs of R03A + R03B drugs) for each patient, 20 years and older. The X-plain database of Apoteket AB gave drug sales data for Sweden and Swedish population data were obtained from Swedish statistics. RESULTS: The sales volumes of asthma/COPD drugs were much higher for older than for younger people. The volumes increased from 18 DDD/TID for the 20-29 year group up to 124 DDD/TID for patients 70-79 years, or about seven times. The average volumes per patient in the different age groups corresponded to one DDD/day in only three of the age groups (50-79 years). In the youngest group the average drug volume per patient corresponded to one DDD every second day, which may indicate undermedication. The percentages of the Swedish population with asthma/COPD drugs increased from 4.0% for 20-29 years old to 14.5% for 80+ years old, or 3.6 times. When head-to-head comparisons could be made between reported prevalence data of asthma and COPD and our data the two sets of data were in a reasonable agreement. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of drug treatment, i.e. the proportion of the population with dispensed asthma/COPD drugs, could function as a proxy for the disease prevalence of asthma plus COPD.
OBJECTIVE: The growing prevalence of multiple medicine use among elderly challenges health care. The aim was to conduct an exploratory study describing multiple medicine use from the elderly patient's perspective. METHODS: Twelve focus groups of 29 men and 30 women 65 years of age or older, using five or more medicines were analysed qualitatively. RESULTS: Initially the participants reported no problems with using multiple medicines; they felt fortunate that medicines existed and kept them alive. However, negative attitudes were also revealed, both similar to those presented in studies on lay experience of medicine-taking and some that appear more specific to users of multiple medicines. The foremost of these was that acceptance of medicines depends on not experiencing adverse effects and worrying whether multiple medicine use is 'good' for the body. Furthermore, participants' perception of their medicines depended on interaction with doctors, i.e. trusting 'good' doctors. CONCLUSION: The participants revealed co-existing accounts of both immediate gratitude and problems with using multiple medicines. Furthermore, the patient-doctor relationship coloured their attitudes towards their medicines. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Importance of the patient-doctor relationship for treatment success is highlighted. Moreover, to be able to capture both accounts of the elderly in this study an appropriate consultation length is needed.
OBJECTIVES: Mortality rates for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) have decreased after the introduction of cyclophosphamide. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) expresses the overall mortality of patients compared with the general population. The aims of this study were to compare survival in an old and a recent cohort of patients with WG and MPA using SMR and to determine predictors for death in both groups combined. DESIGN: Survival analyses were performed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves, SMR and proportional hazards regression models. SETTING: The nephrology and rheumatology clinics at Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. SUBJECTS: All patients diagnosed with WG or MPA in the catchment area during 1978-2005 were divided into two cohorts; patients diagnosed before (n=32, old cohort) and after (n=63, recent cohort) December 31, 1996. RESULTS: The two cohorts differed regarding the proportion of WG (75% vs. 56%, P=0.03) and a tendency for more pronounced kidney involvement in the old cohort: 266 micromol L(-1) (16% dialysis-dependent) vs. 192 micromol L(-1) (5% dialysis-dependent), but were comparable regarding disease severity. SMR at 1 and 5 years were 2.1 (95% CI: 0.43-6.09) and 1.6 (95% CI: 0.6-3.2) in the recent cohort and 5.2 (95% CI: 1.07-15.14) and 2.5 (95% CI: 0.93-5.52) in the old cohort. Five-year survival was 87% and 81%. Serum creatinine, age, end-stage renal disease, diagnosis before 1997 and first relapse were independent predictors for death. CONCLUSION: Patient survival in WG and MPA analysed with SMR may be better than previously believed. Severe renal disease and disease relapse were the major predictors of reduced survival.
OBJECTIVE: To determine medication possession ratio (MPR) of patients with asthma/COPD drugs. METHOD: Individual patient's volumes of asthma/COPD drugs (ATC-code R03) for 2000-2004 were obtained from a pharmacy record database. For each patient the MPR was calculated as the percentage of the treatment time that the patient had drugs available. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Medication possession ratio (MPR). RESULTS: A total of 1,812 patients, 20 years and older, with dispensed asthma/COPD drugs were registered in the database, 928 patients (51%) had acquired drugs less than once per year (68% for 20-29 years old) during the 5-year study. Only 13% of the patients had steroids and steroid combinations available to allow continuous treatment. Eight percent of the patients 20-29 years old had MPR > or = 80% of all the included drugs and 5% when only steroids and steroid combinations were considered. About 25% of the patients had acquired 80% of the total volume of asthma/COPD drugs. CONCLUSION: The majority of the patients, and particularly those in the youngest age group used asthma/COPD drugs only sporadically. This may indicate undermedication which is likely to have a negative impact on patient outcome.
AIMS: To calculate the population-attributable risk (PAR) of coronary events (CE) from 10 risk factors, during long-term follow-up. METHODS: We used both case-cohort and case-control analyses for calculation of PAR in relation to 10 baseline risk factors. First CE (fatal or nonfatal, n=3072) in 22,444 males and 10,902 females was recorded during a mean follow-up of 20 years by use of national registers. RESULTS: Using a Cox regression analysis in a case-cohort design, smoking (prevalence in men 49%, women 37%) was the strongest risk factor, RR 2.29 (95% CI 2.09-2.52; PAR 39%), followed by hypercholesterolaemia, RR 1.70 (95% CI 1.56-1.86; PAR 18%), and diabetes, RR 1.67 (95% CI 1.41-1.99; PAR 3%). For women the strongest risk factors were smoking, RR 3.16 (95% CI 2.50-3.98; PAR 44%), diabetes, RR 2.59 (95% CI 1.78-3.76; PAR 6%), and hypertension, RR 2.47 (95% CI 1.94-3.14; PAR 23%). In men, smoking was the strongest predictor both after 10 years [RR 2.69 (95% CI 2.23-3.24)] and 20 years [RR 2.45 (95% CI 2.15-2.79)], followed by hypercholesterolaemia (RR 2.16-1.63), hypertension (RR 2.04-1.51), and diabetes (RR 1.85 -1.47). The case-control design gave very similar results. Total PAR varied from 74% (fully adjusted Cox regression, case-control, in men) to 116% in women (case-cohort). CONCLUSION: Smoking is the most important long-term risk factor for CE in both genders, based on data from a population with a high proportion of smokers. Ten measured variables explained almost all variation in risk and could be used as a basis for intervention programmes.