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A broad cocktail of environmental pollutants found in eggs of three seabird species from remote colonies in Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268924
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015 Jun;34(6):1296-308
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Sandra Huber
Nicholas A Warner
Torgeir Nygård
Mikael Remberger
Mikael Harju
Hilde T Uggerud
Lennart Kaj
Linda Hanssen
Source
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015 Jun;34(6):1296-308
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Birds - growth & development - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - metabolism
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis - metabolism
Metals, Heavy - analysis - metabolism
Norway
Ovum - chemistry
Pesticides - analysis - metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - metabolism
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic - analysis - metabolism
Principal Component Analysis
Abstract
Eggs of 3 seabird species, common eider (Somateria mollisima), European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis aristotelis), and European herring gull (Larus argentatus), were surveyed for a broad range of legacy and emerging pollutants to assess chemical mixture exposure profiles of seabirds from the Norwegian marine environment. In total, 201 chemical substances were targeted for analysis ranging from metals, organotin compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and associated metabolites, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated and nonchlorinated organic pesticides, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), dechlorane plus, octachlorostyrene, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), organophosphorous compounds, brominated and alkyl phenols, cyclic siloxanes, and phthalates. Of the chemicals targeted, 149 substances were found above the detection limits, with metals dominating the contaminant profile and comprising 60% of the total contaminant load. Polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, organophosphorous compounds, and PFAS were the dominant contaminant classes of organic pollutants found within the seabird species, with the highest loads occurring in herring gulls, followed by shag, and common eider. New generation pollutants (e.g., PFAS, organophosphorous compounds, and alkylphenols) were detected at similar or higher concentrations than the legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Time trends of reported concentrations of legacy POPs appear to have decreased in recent decades from the Norwegian coastal environment. Concentrations of detected pollutants do not appear to have a negative effect on seabird population development within the sampling area. Additional stress caused by pollutants, however, may affect seabird health more at the individual level.
PubMed ID
25728907 View in PubMed
Less detail

Elucidating the Behavior of Cyclic Volatile Methylsiloxanes in a Subarctic Freshwater Food Web: A Modeled and Measured Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292351
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Nov 07; 51(21):12489-12497
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-07-2017
Author
Ingjerd S Krogseth
Emma Undeman
Anita Evenset
Guttorm N Christensen
Mick J Whelan
Knut Breivik
Nicholas A Warner
Author Affiliation
NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research , The Fram Centre, P.O. Box 6606 Langnes, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Nov 07; 51(21):12489-12497
Date
Nov-07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Environmental monitoring
Food chain
Humans
Lakes
Siloxanes
Trout
Waste Water
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Abstract
Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) are used in personal care products and emitted to aquatic environments through wastewater effluents, and their bioaccumulation potential is debated. Here, a new bentho-pelagic version of the ACC-HUMAN model was evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and applied to cVMS in combination with measurements to explore their bioaccumulation behavior in a subarctic lake. Predictions agreed better with measured PCB concentrations in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) when the benthic link was included than in the pelagic-only model. Measured concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) were 60 ± 1.2 (Chironomidae larvae), 107 ± 4.5 (pea clams Pisidium sp.), 131 ± 105 (three-spined sticklebacks: Gasterosteus aculeatus), 41 ± 38 (char), and 9.9 ± 5.9 (trout) ng g-1 wet weight. Concentrations were lower for octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), and none of the cVMS displayed trophic magnification. Predicted cVMS concentrations were lower than measured in benthos, but agreed well with measurements in fish. cVMS removal through ventilation was an important predicted loss mechanism for the benthic-feeding fish. Predictions were highly sensitive to the partition coefficient between organic carbon and water (KOC) and its temperature dependence, as this controlled bioavailability for benthos (the main source of cVMS for fish).
PubMed ID
28980809 View in PubMed
Less detail

Elucidating the Behavior of Cyclic Volatile Methylsiloxanes in a Subarctic Freshwater Food Web: A Modeled and Measured Approach.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature285896
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Oct 05;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-05-2017
Author
Ingjerd Sunde Krogseth
Emma Maria Undeman
Anita Evenset
Guttorm N Christensen
Mick J Whelan
Knut Breivik
Nicholas A Warner
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Oct 05;
Date
Oct-05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) are used in personal care products and emitted to aquatic environments through wastewater effluents, and their bioaccumulation potential is debated. Here, a new bentho-pelagic version of the ACC-HUMAN model was evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and applied to cVMS in combination with measurements to explore their bioaccumulation behavior in a subarctic lake. Predictions agreed better with measured PCB concentrations in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) when the benthic link was included than in the pelagic-only model. Measured concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) were 60 ± 1.2 (Chironomidae larvae), 107 ± 4.5 (pea clams Pisidium sp.), 131 ± 105 (three-spined sticklebacks: Gasterosteus aculeatus), 41 ± 38 (char), and 9.9 ± 5.9 (trout) ng g(-1) wet weight. Concentrations were lower for octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6), and none of the cVMS displayed trophic magnification. Predicted cVMS concentrations were lower than measured in benthos, but agreed well with measurements in fish. cVMS removal through ventilation was an important predicted loss mechanism for the benthic-feeding fish. Predictions were highly sensitive to the partition coefficient between organic carbon and water (KOC) and its temperature dependence, as this controlled bioavailability for benthos (the main source of cVMS for fish).
PubMed ID
28980809 View in PubMed
Less detail

Individual variability in contaminants and physiological status in a resident Arctic seabird species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298869
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jan 25; 249:191-199
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-25-2019
Author
Norith Eckbo
Céline Le Bohec
Victor Planas-Bielsa
Nicholas A Warner
Quentin Schull
Dorte Herzke
Sandrine Zahn
Ane Haarr
Geir W Gabrielsen
Katrine Borgå
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, Department of Biosciences, Problemveien 7, 0315, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: norith.eckbo@ibv.uio.no.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jan 25; 249:191-199
Date
Jan-25-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
While migratory seabirds dominate ecotoxicological studies within the Arctic, there is limited knowledge about exposure and potential effects from circulating legacy and emerging contaminants in species who reside in the high-Arctic all year round. Here, we focus on the case of the Mandt's Black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) breeding at Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79.00°N, 11.66°E) and investigate exposure to legacy and emerging contaminants in relation to individual physiological status, i.e. body condition, oxidative stress and relative telomere length. Despite its benthic-inshore foraging strategy, the Black guillemot displayed overall similar contaminant concentrations in blood during incubation (?PCB11 (15.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PFAS5 (9.9?ng/g w.w.)?>??Pesticides9 (6.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PBDE4 (2.7?ng/g w.w.), and Hg (0.3 µg/g d.w.) compared to an Arctic migratory seabird in which several contaminant-related stress responses have been observed. Black guillemots in poorer condition tended to display higher levels of contaminants, higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites, lower plasmatic antioxidant capacity, and shorter telomere lengths; however the low sample size restrict any strong conclusions. Nevertheless, our data suggests that nonlinear relationships with a threshold may exist between accumulated contaminant concentrations and physiological status of the birds. These findings were used to build a hypothesis to be applied in future modelling for describing how chronic exposure to contaminants may be linked to telomere dynamics.
PubMed ID
30889502 View in PubMed
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Individual variability in contaminants and physiological status in a resident Arctic seabird species.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301923
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jun; 249:191-199
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2019
Author
Norith Eckbo
Céline Le Bohec
Victor Planas-Bielsa
Nicholas A Warner
Quentin Schull
Dorte Herzke
Sandrine Zahn
Ane Haarr
Geir W Gabrielsen
Katrine Borgå
Author Affiliation
University of Oslo, Department of Biosciences, Problemveien 7, 0315, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: norith.eckbo@ibv.uio.no.
Source
Environ Pollut. 2019 Jun; 249:191-199
Date
Jun-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds - metabolism - physiology
Charadriiformes - metabolism - physiology
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - metabolism
Mercury - metabolism
Svalbard
Abstract
While migratory seabirds dominate ecotoxicological studies within the Arctic, there is limited knowledge about exposure and potential effects from circulating legacy and emerging contaminants in species who reside in the high-Arctic all year round. Here, we focus on the case of the Mandt's Black guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandtii) breeding at Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (79.00°N, 11.66°E) and investigate exposure to legacy and emerging contaminants in relation to individual physiological status, i.e. body condition, oxidative stress and relative telomere length. Despite its benthic-inshore foraging strategy, the Black guillemot displayed overall similar contaminant concentrations in blood during incubation (?PCB11 (15.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PFAS5 (9.9?ng/g w.w.)?>??Pesticides9 (6.7?ng/g w.w.)?>??PBDE4 (2.7?ng/g w.w.), and Hg (0.3 µg/g d.w.) compared to an Arctic migratory seabird in which several contaminant-related stress responses have been observed. Black guillemots in poorer condition tended to display higher levels of contaminants, higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites, lower plasmatic antioxidant capacity, and shorter telomere lengths; however the low sample size restrict any strong conclusions. Nevertheless, our data suggests that nonlinear relationships with a threshold may exist between accumulated contaminant concentrations and physiological status of the birds. These findings were used to build a hypothesis to be applied in future modelling for describing how chronic exposure to contaminants may be linked to telomere dynamics.
PubMed ID
30889502 View in PubMed
Less detail

Plasma concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in pregnant and postmenopausal Norwegian women and self-reported use of personal care products (PCPs).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118493
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Jan;51:82-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2013
Author
Linda Hanssen
Nicholas A Warner
Tonje Braathen
Jon Ø Odland
Eiliv Lund
Evert Nieboer
Torkjel M Sandanger
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway. linda.hanssen@uit.no
Source
Environ Int. 2013 Jan;51:82-7
Date
Jan-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Cosmetics - metabolism
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Limit of Detection
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Norway
Postmenopause - metabolism
Pregnancy
Siloxanes - metabolism
Abstract
Dermal application of personal care products (PCPs) is considered an important human exposure route for siloxanes. Their presence as minor or major constituents in many personal care products (PCPs) and cosmetics is of concern for human exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) in blood plasma of pregnant and postmenopausal women, and to investigate possible links to self-reported use of PCPs for the latter group. Participants were recruited from two studies, namely the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study (NOWAC) and the North Norwegian Mother-and-child Study (MISA). For the NOWAC cohort, 94 plasma samples from postmenopausal women were analyzed (blood drawn in 2005) and information about PCP use and breast implants was derived from a self-administered questionnaire. In the MISA study, the collection of the plasma samples (blood drawn in 2009) constituted a re-sampling because the original serum vacutainers used were contaminated with cVMS. D4 (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane) was the dominant compound in plasma for both cohorts. For the NOWAC samples, more than 85% of the women had D4 concentrations above the LOQ (2.74 ng/mL), while the detection frequency was only 18% for the MISA participants. The highest cVMS plasma concentrations were observed for D4: 12.7 ng/mL (NOWAC) and 2.69 ng/mL (MISA). For the other cVMS, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) concentrations were below the detection limit in most samples. There was no significant correlation between the concentrations of D4 and the reported total body cream use. Sampling time (2005 versus 2009) and age of the donors could explain the differences between the two cohorts.
PubMed ID
23201819 View in PubMed
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Potential Effect of Migration Strategy on Pollutant Occurrence in Eggs of Arctic Breeding Barnacle Geese ( Branta leucopsis).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299058
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2019 May 07; 53(9):5427-5435
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-07-2019
Author
Daniel J Hitchcock
Tom Andersen
Øystein Varpe
Maarten J J E Loonen
Nicholas A Warner
Dorte Herzke
Ingunn M Tombre
Larry R Griffin
Paul Shimmings
Katrine Borgå
Author Affiliation
Department of Biosciences , University of Oslo , 0316 Oslo , Norway.
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2019 May 07; 53(9):5427-5435
Date
May-07-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Arctic-breeding geese acquire resources for egg production from overwintering grounds, spring stopover sites and breeding grounds, where pollutant exposure may differ. We investigated the effect of migration strategy on pollutant occurrence of lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and protein-associated poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg) in eggs of herbivorous barnacle geese ( Branta leucopsis) from an island colony on Svalbard. Stable isotopes (d13C and d15N) in eggs and vegetation collected along the migration route were similar. Pollutant concentrations in eggs were low, reflecting their terrestrial diet (?PCB = 1.23 ± 0.80 ng/g ww; ?PFAS = 1.21 ± 2.97 ng/g ww; Hg = 20.17 ± 7.52 ng/g dw). PCB concentrations in eggs increased with later hatch date, independent of lipid content which also increased over time. Some females may remobilize and transfer more PCBs to their eggs, by delaying migration several weeks, relying on more polluted and stored resources, or being in poor body condition when arriving at the breeding grounds. PFAS and Hg occurrence in eggs did not change throughout the breeding season, suggesting migration has a greater effect on lipophilic pollutants. Pollutant exposure during offspring production in arctic-breeding migrants may result in different profiles, with effects becoming more apparent with increasing trophic levels.
PubMed ID
30938990 View in PubMed
Less detail

Reducing sampling artifacts in active air sampling methodology for remote monitoring and atmospheric fate assessment of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature305993
Source
Chemosphere. 2020 Sep; 255:126967
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2020
Author
Nicholas A Warner
Vladimir Nikiforov
Ingjerd S Krogseth
Stine M Bjørneby
Amelie Kierkegaard
Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto
Author Affiliation
NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, NO-9296, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, The Arctic University of Norway (UiT), Hansine Hansens veg 18, NO-9037, Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address: nw@nilu.no.
Source
Chemosphere. 2020 Sep; 255:126967
Date
Sep-2020
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Arctic Regions
Artifacts
Environmental monitoring
Seasons
Siloxanes - analysis
Svalbard
Abstract
Active sampling methodology for atmospheric monitoring of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) was improved to reduce sampling artifacts. A new sorbent, ABN Express (ABN), was evaluated for storage stability and measurement accuracy. Storage stability of cVMS on ABN showed less than 1% degradation of the individual 13C-labelled octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (13C4-D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (13C5-D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (13C6-D6) after 14 days storage at room temperature and at -20 °C whereas significant degradation was observed on ENV+ sorbent at room temperature (37-62 %) and -20 °C (9-16 %). 13C4-D4 formed on ENV+ spiked with 13C5-D5, and both 13C4-D4 and 13C5-D5 formed on ENV+ spiked with 13C6-D6. However, this was not observed on the ABN sorbent. Performance of ABN was compared to ENV+ through an 8-month Arctic sampling campaign at the Zeppelin Observatory (Ny Ålesund, Svalbard). Good agreement between ABN and ENV+ was observed for D4 in the spring/summer months. However, D5 and D6 was found to be consistently higher on the ABN sorbent during this time period with D6 showing the greatest deviation. During the winter months, larger deviations were observed between ABN and ENV+ sorbents with a factor of 4 times higher atmospheric concentrations of both D5 and D6 found on ABN; indicating sorbent related degradation on ENV+. Our findings show that the ABN sorbent provides greater stability and accuracy for atmospheric monitoring of cVMS. Implications of these improvements towards atmospheric fate processes will be discussed.
PubMed ID
32408127 View in PubMed
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Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivealis) as bio-indicators for exposure differences to legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants from the Arctic terrestrial environment on Svalbard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299079
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jun 01; 667:638-647
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jun-01-2019
Author
Nicholas A Warner
Kjetil Sagerup
Siv Kristoffersen
Dorte Herzke
Geir W Gabrielsen
Bjørn M Jenssen
Author Affiliation
NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address: nicholas.warner@nilu.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jun 01; 667:638-647
Date
Jun-01-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Alkanesulfonic Acids - metabolism
Animals
Arctic Regions
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - metabolism
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism
Fluorocarbons - metabolism
Passeriformes - metabolism
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - metabolism
Svalbard
Abstract
Eggs of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivealis) were applied as a bio-indicator to examine differences in exposure to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and perflouroalkyl subtances (PFAS) from the terrestrial environment surrounding the settlements of Longyearbyen, Barentsburg and Pyramiden on Svalbard, Norway. Significantly higher concentrations of summed polychlorinated biphenyls (sumPCB7) in eggs collected from Barentsburg (2980?ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and Pyramiden (3860?ng/g lw) compared to Longyearbyen (96?ng/g lw) are attributed to local sources of PCBs within these settlements. Similar findings were observed for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) where higher median concentrations observed in Pyramiden (173?ng/g lw) and Barentsburg (75?ng/g lw) compared to Longyearbyen (48?ng/g lw) may be influenced by guano inputs from breeding seabird populations, although other point sources cannot be ruled out. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and several perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in snow bunting eggs were found to be statistically higher in the populated settlements of Longyearbyen and Barentsburg compared to the abandoned Pyramiden. Narrow foraging ranges of snow buntings during breeding season was useful in assessing point sources of exposure for PCBs and PFAS at particular sites with extreme differences observed between nest locations. SumPCB7 concentrations ranged from 2?µg/g ww to below detection limits between nest sites located less than a kilometer from each other in Pyramiden. Similar findings were observed in Longyearbyen, where several PFCAs ranged from 2 to 55 times higher between nest sites with similar spatial distances. These findings indicate that snow buntings can be a useful bio-indicator offering high spatial resolution for contaminant source apportionment in terrestrial environments on Svalbard.
PubMed ID
30833262 View in PubMed
Less detail

Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivealis) as bio-indicators for exposure differences to legacy and emerging persistent organic pollutants from the Arctic terrestrial environment on Svalbard.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298529
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 23; 667:638-647
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Feb-23-2019
Author
Nicholas A Warner
Kjetil Sagerup
Siv Kristoffersen
Dorte Herzke
Geir W Gabrielsen
Bjørn M Jenssen
Author Affiliation
NILU-Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address: nicholas.warner@nilu.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 23; 667:638-647
Date
Feb-23-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Eggs of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivealis) were applied as a bio-indicator to examine differences in exposure to legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and perflouroalkyl subtances (PFAS) from the terrestrial environment surrounding the settlements of Longyearbyen, Barentsburg and Pyramiden on Svalbard, Norway. Significantly higher concentrations of summed polychlorinated biphenyls (sumPCB7) in eggs collected from Barentsburg (2980?ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and Pyramiden (3860?ng/g lw) compared to Longyearbyen (96?ng/g lw) are attributed to local sources of PCBs within these settlements. Similar findings were observed for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) where higher median concentrations observed in Pyramiden (173?ng/g lw) and Barentsburg (75?ng/g lw) compared to Longyearbyen (48?ng/g lw) may be influenced by guano inputs from breeding seabird populations, although other point sources cannot be ruled out. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and several perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in snow bunting eggs were found to be statistically higher in the populated settlements of Longyearbyen and Barentsburg compared to the abandoned Pyramiden. Narrow foraging ranges of snow buntings during breeding season was useful in assessing point sources of exposure for PCBs and PFAS at particular sites with extreme differences observed between nest locations. SumPCB7 concentrations ranged from 2?µg/g ww to below detection limits between nest sites located less than a kilometer from each other in Pyramiden. Similar findings were observed in Longyearbyen, where several PFCAs ranged from 2 to 55 times higher between nest sites with similar spatial distances. These findings indicate that snow buntings can be a useful bio-indicator offering high spatial resolution for contaminant source apportionment in terrestrial environments on Svalbard.
PubMed ID
30833262 View in PubMed
Less detail

11 records – page 1 of 2.