Unité d'épidemiologie du cancer et Registres des tumeurs de Vaud et Neuchâtel, Institut de médecine sociale et préventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Université de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To update trends in kidney cancer mortality in 32 European countries and the European Union (EU) as a whole, as mortality from kidney cancer has increased throughout Europe until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and has tended to stabilise or decline thereafter. METHODS: Data from the World Health Organization mortality database over the period 1980-2004 were used to compute age-specific and age-standardized (world standard) rates per 100,000 persons at all ages, and truncated to 35-64 years. RESULTS: In men in the EU, mortality rates from kidney cancer peaked at 4.8 per 100,000 in 1990-1994, and declined to 4.1 (-13%) in 2000-2004. In women in the EU, the corresponding values were 2.1 in 1990-1994 and 1.8 (-17%) in 2000-2004. The main decreases were in Scandinavian countries, and other western European countries. In most eastern European countries kidney mortality rates tended to stabilise, even if values remained high, especially in the Czech Republic and Baltic countries. For kidney cancer incidence, there were decreases in rates for both sexes in Sweden throughout the 25-year calendar period considered. In the last 10 years considered, incidence rates decreased or tended to stabilise also in other northern European countries in both sexes, except in the UK. CONCLUSION: The present work confirms and further quantifies the recent favourable trends in kidney cancer mortality and (to a lesser degree) in incidence across most European countries. Thus, improvements in diagnosis and treatments cannot largely explain the declines in mortality. Apart from a favourable role of reduced tobacco smoking in men, the interpretation of these trends remains undefined.
Unité d'Epidémiologie du Cancer and Registres Vaudois et Neuchâtelois des Tumeurs, Institut de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois et Faculté de Biologie et Médecine, Lausanne, Switzerland. Fabio.Levi@chuv.ch
OBJECTIVE: To update trends in mortality from coronary heart diseases (CHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) over the period 1981-2004 in Europe, the USA, Latin America, Japan and other selected areas of the world. METHODS: Age-standardized mortality rates were derived from the World Health Organization database. Joinpoint analysis was used to identify significant changes in trends. RESULTS: In the European Union (27 countries), CHD mortality in men declined from 139/100,000 in 1985-1989 to 93/100,000 in 2000-2004 (-33%). In women, the fall was from 61/100,000 to 44/100,000 (-27%). In this area, a decline by over 30% was also registered in CVD mortality for both sexes. In the Russian Federation and other countries of the former Soviet Union, CHD rates in 2000-2004 were exceedingly high, around 380/100,000 men and 170/100,000 women in Russia, 430 for men and 240 for women in Ukraine, 420 and 200 in Belarus. For CVD, a similar situation was registered, with mortality rates of 226/100,000 for men and 159/100,000 for women in 2004 in the Russian Federation, and more than 24% increase since the late 1980s for men and 15% for women. CHD and CVD mortality continued to decline in most Latin American countries, Australia and other areas considered, including Asia (even if with marked differences). CONCLUSION: Although mortality from CHD and CVD continues to decline in several areas of the world including most countries of Europe and of the America providing data and Australia, unfavourable trends were still observed in the Russian Federation and other countries of the former Soviet Union, whose recent rates remain exceedingly high.
Until the mid-1990s, gastric cancer has been the first cause of cancer death worldwide, although rates had been declining for several decades and gastric cancer has become a relatively rare cancer in North America and in most Northern and Western Europe, but not in Eastern Europe, Russia and selected areas of Central and South America or East Asia. We analyzed gastric cancer mortality in Europe and other areas of the world from 1980 to 2005 using joinpoint regression analysis, and provided updated site-specific incidence rates from 51 selected registries. Over the last decade, the annual percent change (APC) in mortality rate was around -3, -4% for the major European countries. The APC were similar for the Republic of Korea (APC = -4.3%), Australia (-3.7%), the USA (-3.6%), Japan (-3.5%), Ukraine (-3%) and the Russian Federation (-2.8%). In Latin America, the decline was less marked, but constant with APC around -1.6% in Chile and Brazil, -2.3% in Argentina and Mexico and -2.6% in Colombia. Cancers in the fundus and pylorus are more common in high incidence and mortality areas and have been declining more than cardia gastric cancer. Steady downward trends persist in gastric cancer mortality worldwide even in middle aged population, and hence further appreciable declines are likely in the near future.
Upward trends in mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were recently reported in the United States and Japan. Comprehensive analyses of most recent data for European countries are not available. Age-standardized (world standard) HCC rates per 100,000 (at all ages, at age 20-44, and age 45-59 years) were computed for 23 European countries over the period 1980-2004 using data from the World Health Organization. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to identify significant changes in trends, and annual percent change were computed. Male overall mortality from HCC increased in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, and other western countries, while it significantly decreased over recent years in countries such as France and Italy, which had large upward trends until the mid-1990s. In the early 2000s, among countries allowing distinction between HCC and other liver cancers, the highest HCC rates in men were in France (6.8/100,000), Italy (6.7), and Switzerland (5.9), whereas the lowest ones were in Norway (1.0), Ireland (0.8), and Sweden (0.7). In women, a slight increase in overall HCC mortality was observed in Spain and Switzerland, while mortality decreased in several other European countries, particularly since the mid-1990s. In the early 2000s, female HCC mortality rates were highest in Italy (1.9/100,000), Switzerland (1.8), and Spain (1.5) and lowest in Greece, Ireland, and Sweden (0.3). In most countries, trends at age 45-59 years were consistent with overall ones, whereas they were more favorable at age 20-44 years in both sexes. CONCLUSION: HCC mortality remains largely variable across Europe. Favorable trends were observed in several European countries mainly over the last decade, particularly in women and in young adults.