The level of radiation exposure in children in Belarus caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body 137Cs count. The subjects were 10,062 children (4,762 boys and 5,300 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel, Belarus, who received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project health examinations from May 1991 to December 1992 and who were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body 137Cs count per body weight varied from 21-48 Bq kg-1 and from 28-126 Bq kg-1 in Mogilev oblast and Gomel oblast, respectively. (The "oblast" is the largest administrative district constituting the country. Belarus consists of 6 oblasts). Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y-1, but the observed levels in the children were considerably higher than the average level of 2.3 Bq kg-1 reported in the past for the former Soviet Union.
Comment In: Health Phys. 1995 May;68(5):733-57730075
The high incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus is suspected to be due to radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. To clarify the clinical and histological characteristics of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, we therefore compared these patients to a radiation non-exposed control series in Japan. In Belarus, 26 thyroid cancers in subjects aged 15 or younger were diagnosed among 25,000 screened between 1991 and 1995 by Chernobyl-Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. The clinical and morphologic features of these 26 cases were compared to 37 childhood thyroid cancers in Japan diagnosed between 1962 and 1995. The age distribution at operation in Belarus showed a peak at 10 years old, with a subsequent fall in numbers. In contrast, the age distribution at operation in Japan showed a smooth increase between the ages of 8 and 14. The mean tumor diameter was smaller in Belarus than that in Japan (1.4 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.1 +/- 1.7 cm, P
Eight Brown Norway rats were immunized twice at days 0 and 13 by intraperitneal injections of 10 micrograms Cry j I, one of major allergen to Japanese cedar pollinosis, mixed with 4.5 mg aluminium hydroxide gel. Serum level of Anti-Cry j I IgE antibody was detected by the method of ELISA. Mean value of serum levels of specific IgE to Cry j I in the sensitized rats was significantly higher than that in the non-sensitized five rats (p
The prevalence of goiter among children living in areas affected by the Chernobyl accident was investigated by analysis of data on approximately 120,000 children examined at five medical diagnostic centers in Belarus, Russia, and the Ukraine. Examinations of thyroid gland were conducted with an arch-automatic ultrasonographic instrument at the five centers under the same protocol. The diagnosis of goiter was established when the thyroid volume exceeded a limit calculated from age, height, and body weight of a child. A considerable variation by region was noted in the prevalence of goiter. Highest in the Kiev region, the prevalence in the five regions was 54% in Kiev, 38% in the Zhitomir regions of the Ukraine, 18% in Gomel, 22% in the Mogilev regions of Belarus, and 41% in the Bryansk region of Russia. Urinary iodine content was measured in approximately 5700 children, and an endemic iodine deficient zone was confirmed in the Bryansk, Kiev, and Zhitomir regions. A significant negative correlation was observed between the prevalence of goiter and the median level of urinary iodine content (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was -0.35, P = 0.025).
OBJECTIVE--To determine the baseline incidence, prevalence, and characteristics of thyroid nodules in the population living around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and to compare the findings with unexposed populations. DESIGN--Prevalence study. Population samples from seven highly contaminated villages were compared with six nearby control villages of the same size and type. The data were obtained as part of the International Chernobyl Project conducted in 1990. SETTING--The study was conducted 4.5 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident that released large quantities of radionuclides, including radioiodine. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS--Population samples of approximately 100 persons residing in both highly contaminated villages and control villages since the accident were compared. Individuals were selected on the basis of birth date as being 5, 10, 40, or 60 years old at the time of the study. All persons selected underwent a thyroid examination. INTERVENTIONS--None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Two main outcome measures were used, both for thyroid nodularity: clinical palpation and high-resolution ultrasonography. RESULTS--There was no significant difference in thyroid nodularity between the study groups. Nodules were palpated in 0.7% of children and 2.9% of adults. Discrete nodules were found by ultrasonography in 0.5% of children and 14.9% of adults. Multinodular goiter was found in 3% of adults. Nodules were more common in females. CONCLUSIONS--Four and a half years after the Chernobyl accident, the incidence, prevalence, and characteristics of thyroid nodules were the same in population samples from both highly contaminated and control settlements and similar to results reported for unexposed populations in other countries.