PURPOSE: To analyze the relation between alcohol consumption and the risk of disability pension among middle-aged men. METHODS: In the mid-seventies, complete birth-year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmö, Sweden, were invited to participate in a general health survey. The 3751 men with complete data who constituted the cohort in this study were followed for 11 years. Alcohol consumption was estimated from the scores obtained from a test designed to identify subjects with alcohol related problems. RESULTS: Of the 498 men granted disability pension during follow-up, 48 stated to be teetotalers. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among teetotalers was 19%, whereas, it was 12% and 16%, respectively, among men with low and high alcohol consumption. The adjusted relative risk (RR) for acquiring a disability pension (using the group with low alcohol consumption as reference) was 1.8 among abstainers and 1.3 among men with high alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol overconsumption, as well as teetotalism, showed a positive relation to disability pension, and a moderate alcohol intake was found to be beneficial with respect to the risk of future disability pension.
BACKGROUND: Obesity has, in a number of studies, been found to correlate to disability and mortality, primarily due to diseases of the circulatory and musculoskeletal systems. In addition, an excess mortality among underweight subjects has been observed in previous studies. METHODS: Five complete birth-year cohorts (1926-1930) of male residents in Malmö (n = 7697) were invited to the survey at the Department of Preventive Medicine, Malmö General Hospital, and 5926 (77%) attended with complete data. Each subject was followed from inclusion, defined by the date of examination, until the end of the calendar year when he turned 58, a total study period of approximately 11 years. Data on about 300 questionnaire items and laboratory tests were determined at the health survey visit. Nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Of the participants, 4.7% were underweight, 37.7% overweight, 7.3% obese and 50.3% normal weight; 849 (14.3%) had been granted disability pension at the end of follow-up, 717 after screening. After adjustment for smoking there was a J-shaped relation between body mass index (BMI) and incidence of disability pension, the relative risk ( with the normal group as reference) among underweight men being 1.9. For the overweight subjects it was 1.3 and for the obese 2.8, all differences were significant. Disease of the musculoskeletal and circulatory systems and mental disorders accounted for 67.2% of all main diagnoses resulting in disability pensions during follow-up. A total of 377 (6.4%) men died during follow-up. Diseases of the circulatory system, neoplasms, injury/poisoning and diseases of the respiratory system accounted for 91.8% of the deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Both underweight, overweight and obesity were related to risk of disability pension, with a J-shaped risk relationship.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the financial costs of disability pension in order to compare the financial burden and the numerical distribution of disability pension by main diagnostic groups. During three months all new disability pensions (n = 944) granted in Malmöhus county were registered. During a follow-up of approximately two and a half years, 40 subjects died and 15 pensions expired. The predominating diagnoses were musculoskeletal diseases, mental disorders including alcohol dependence, cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To analyse whether these proportions changed when the extent of the pension, age at pension and the retirement allowance were considered, the present value of the total retirement allowances was calculated. The ranking of the four predominating diagnosis categories was not affected by the extent of the pension or the age at which the pension was granted. Thus, musculoskeletal diseases still predominated, although the proportion decreased. Among unemployed subjects, mental disorders made the largest contribution to the total expenditure. The results gained may be used in further research where alternatives to disability pension for different groups of patients and/or diagnoses are investigated.
A total of 5,950 male Malmö residents (from five cohorts, 1926-30) were health screened on two occasions, with an interval of 4-8 years. Disability pensions were granted to 215, of whom 123 were screened both before and after being pensioned. Those 123 constitute the study group reported on here. Among answers to the questionnaire, back and joint pain were the most common complaints mentioned. However, the most striking distinction between the study group and controls was the values of gamma-GT (gamma glutamyltransferase), indicating overconsumption of alcohol in the group of prospective pensioners. Complaints concerning the back were also an outstanding feature of those belonging to the highest deciles of gamma-GT after--but not before--the disability pension had been granted.
Insufficient coping with stress may lead to increased susceptibility for disease and death. Use of anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs has been suggested as a coping strategy, and some opinions have proposed their use as preventive medication. The aim of this study was to estimate if use of anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs counters the increased mortality observed in individuals lacking other coping strategies such as emotional support and social participation.
A population based cohort study with 10-year (1982/83-1993) survival analysis was performed in 491 men born in 1914, living in the Swedish city of Malmö.
Compared with men with a high level of psychosocial coping resources who did not use anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs, men with a low level of psychosocial coping resources had a higher risk of death irrespective whether they used anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs, RR = 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6) or not RR = 1.8 (95%: 1.3-2.5).
Anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs do not seem to counter increased mortality in elderly men with low psychosocial coping resources.
The aim of this study was to assess the relations between self-rated health (SRH), socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI) and disability pension. Five birth-year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmö, Sweden, were invited and 5313 with complete data constituted the cohort in this study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years. Of all subjects, 73% perceived their health as perfect and among obese men and blue collar workers, the corresponding figures were 67 and 68% respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for SRH less than perfect was 1.3 (CI: 1.1-1.7) for obese subjects and 1.7 (CI: 1.5-1.9) for blue collar workers. The interaction between low SES and obesity was estimated to 11% which was not statistically significant. The adjusted relative risks (RR) of disability pension was 3.3 for subjects with SRH less than perfect, 2.2 for blue collar workers and 2.0 for obese subjects, all statistically significant and only marginally less than the crude RR. Thus, SRH among middle-aged men was associated with obesity as well as low SES, but no evidence of synergism between obesity and low SES in relation to SRH was found. Furthermore, poor SRH in particular, but also low SES and obesity, independently predicted disability pension.
OBJECTIVE: To study risk factors for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children aged 2-5 years. DESIGN: A questionnaire was used to chart the number of visits to doctors and the number of antibiotics courses because of RTIs during a 1-year period. The risk factors studied were age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding, atopy, siblings, smoking and childcare. SETTING: The catchment area of Oxie health centre in southern Sweden. SUBJECTS: 190 pre-school children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of visits to doctors and number of antibiotics courses. RESULTS: The risk of having to consult a doctor, as well as the risk of receiving treatment with antibiotics, because of RTIs was greater among children at daycare centres than among children who were mostly at home (adjusted OR 2.78 (95% CI 1.34-5.78) and 2.73 (1.38-5.43), respectively). CONCLUSION: Attending a daycare centre is the most important risk factor for RTIs in children aged 2-5 years.
OBJECTIVE: Self-rated health (SRH) is increasingly attracting attention as a predictor of morbidity and mortality while its relation to impaired function has been given less momentum. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between SRH and the risk of being awarded a disability pension and premature death. METHODS: Five birth-year cohorts of middle-aged men were invited to a screening programme and were followed for approximately 11 years. Of the 718 (12%) men with a disability pension granted during follow-up, 46% had perceived their health as perfect on inclusion. The corresponding figure for the remaining 5,082 men was 77%. RESULTS: The crude relative risk (RR) of disability pension for men with SRH less than perfect was 3.7 (3.2-4.2). After adjustment for premorbidity/medication, the RR declined to 3.3 (2.8-3.8). The crude RR of death associated with SRH less than perfect was 1.6 (1.3-2.0), unchanged after adjustment. CONCLUSION: The results showed that SRH is a strong and independent predictor of disability and, to a lesser degree, of mortality.
BACKGROUND: The issue of inequalities in health has generated much discussion and socioeconomic status is considered an important variable in studies of health. It is frequently used in epidemiological studies, either as a possible risk factor or a confounder and the aim of this study was to analyse the relation between socioeconomic status and risk of disability pension. METHODS: Five complete birth year cohorts of middle-aged male residents in Malmo were invited to a health survey and 5782 with complete data constituted the cohort in this prospective study. Each subject was followed for approximately 11 years and nationwide Swedish data registers were used for surveillance. RESULTS: Among the 715 men (12%), granted disability pension during follow-up, three groups were distinguished. The cumulative incidence of disability pension among blue collar workers was 17% and among lower and higher level white collar workers, 11% and 6% respectively. With simultaneous adjustment for biological risk factors and job conditions, the relative risk for being granted a disability pension (using higher level white collar workers as reference) was 2.5 among blue collar workers and 1.6 among lower level white collar workers. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status, as defined by occupation, is a risk factor for being granted disability pension even after adjusting for work conditions and other risk factors for disease.
AIMS: This cohort study on urban middle-aged men investigates the association between the use of analgesics and hypnotics, self-rated health (SRH) and disability pension. METHODS: Five birth-year cohorts of middle-aged, urban, Swedish men were invited to a screening programme and were followed for approximately 11 years. RESULTS: Out of all the subjects (n = 5798), 12.4% received a disability pension during follow-up, 27.0% rated their health as less than perfect, 10.6% used analgesics and 2.9% used hypnotics. Compared with non-users of analgesics and hypnotics, the adjusted hazard ratio of disability pension for the simultaneous use of both drugs was 7.0 (95% CI: 4.3, 11.6) and the adjusted odds ratio of poor SRH was 16.5 (6.3, 43.5). Thus, the use of analgesics and hypnotics was positively related to poor SRH and predicted award of a disability pension within an 11-year follow-up. This may reflect that the use of analgesics and hypnotics is a proxy of disease but an independent negative effect on health cannot be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Information on the use of these drugs could be used to predict the award of a disability pension, such as in different geographical areas or population groups.