Delivery of obstetrical care in rural Alaska can be very challenging, due to remoteness, lack of medical resources and transportation difficulties. This descriptive study looks at what the current delivery systems for obstetrical care in Alaska are. Alaska's obstetrical delivery systems can be divided into three basic systems. 1) Full comprehensive obstetrical care limited only by lack of neonatal ICU capability. 2) Cesarean delivery capable, but with limited resources. 3) Low risk vaginal deliveries with no cesarean delivery capability except by transports approaching 6 hours. This study raises questions about which system is most effective for which communities. Further studies need to be undertaken to better understand how to provide effective obstetrical care in rural and bush Alaska at an acceptable risk, and at reasonable cost.
Working within the social context of well-being, therefore, enables nurses to respond holistically to clients. Central to the accomplishment of this vision, however, is a reformation of policies, starting with the educational foundation of nursing students. Equipped with a liberal education, an internalization of the values that uphold human dignity and sense of self, and professional knowledge, nurses can become leaders in the process of policy change. With associate health professionals, nurses can assist in forming interventive policies that lay the foundation for community-based programs aimed at the preventive nature of an upstream approach.
OBJECTIVE--To estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and overweight in two populations of Alaska Natives and to compare the results with previous data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Participants' heights, weights, and random plasma glucose levels were determined. Those with a glucose of greater than or equal to 6.72 mM received a follow-up glucose-tolerance test, interpreted by WHO criteria. Overweight was defined by National Center for Health Statistics criteria and also by criteria used in previous studies. The subjects were Eskimo and Athabascan residents greater than or equal to 40 yr of age in 15 villages in southwestern Alaska. RESULTS--Diabetes prevalence was 4.7% for Eskimos and 10.0% for Indians. Among Eskimo men and women, the prevalence of overweight was 34 and 56%, respectively, among Indian men and women, it was 29 and 55%, respectively. Comparisons with past data indicate that the prevalence of diabetes has increased from 1.7% in 1962 for Eskimos and 1.8% in 1969 for Indians. CONCLUSIONS--The prevalence of diabetes appears to have increased among Eskimos and Indians in Alaska. Overweight appears to be a significant problem in both groups.
OBJECTIVE--To provide descriptive epidemiological data on diabetes mellitus among Alaska Natives, including incidence, updated prevalence, and incidence rates of ESRD, LEA, MI, and stroke in the diabetic population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--In IHS and tribal contract hospitals and clinics throughout Alaska, Alaskan Indians, Eskimos, and Aleuts living in Alaska with documented diabetes mellitus were studied from 1986 to 1987. RESULTS--The number of diabetic patients increased from 610 to 708, and the prevalence changed from 15.7 to 17.4/1000 (not a statistically significant increase). Incidence rates per 10,000 diabetic person-yr for complications were 38 for ESRD, 69 for LEA, 92 for MI, and 92 for stroke. CONCLUSIONS--The prevalence of diabetes mellitus increased during the period of observation, but not to a statistically significant degree. Incidence rates for diabetes are lower than for the U.S. general population, but complications rates are as high as those in other diabetic populations.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequency of food intake, body weight, and glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. DESIGN: Height, weight, and random blood glucose levels were measured and a frequency-of-food-intake questionnaire was obtained. This questionnaire classified persons as consumers of indigenous foods or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. Those with a random blood glucose measurement > or = 6.72 mmol/L received an oral glucose tolerance test. SETTING: Community screening in 15 villages in Alaska. SUBJECTS: Nutrition screenings were done for 1,124 Alaska Native residents aged 20 years or older. An oral glucose tolerance test was done for 202 subjects. OUTCOMES MEASURED: Subjects were classified as consumers of indigenous or nonindigenous foods within three food groups. A diagnosis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was made on the basis of World Health Organization criteria. A determination of overweight was made on the basis of National Center for Health Statistics criteria. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A chi 2 test with Yates correction, t test, and linear regression, with two-sided P values. RESULTS: Athabascan Indians had twice the rate of NIDDM as Yup'ik Eskimos with significantly higher frequency of nonindigenous food intake, plus lower frequency of indigenous carbohydrate and fat intake. Subjects or = 60 years old. Persons who had glucose intolerance reported significantly greater consumption of nonindigenous protein and less seal oil. Incidence of overweight was significantly higher than was found 25 years ago. Participants with glucose intolerance were significantly more overweight than others. CONCLUSION: A pattern of increased frequency of nonindigenous protein, low-nutrient-density carbohydrate, and fat intake with less indigenous carbohydrate and fat consumption was found in subjects
The first HPV vaccines licensed targeted two HPV types responsible for most cervical cancers. A 9-valent vaccine (9vHPV), targeting 5 additional types, was introduced in 2016 and is currently the only HPV vaccine available in the United States. Previous studies demonstrated high rates of HPV infection in Alaska Native (AN) women. We sought to measure prevalence of high risk HPV types in AN women undergoing colposcopy and to determine those preventable by vaccination.
For this cross-sectional study, we recruited women who were undergoing colposcopy for clinical indications at Alaska Native Medical Center to obtain cervical brush biopsy samples. Specimens were shipped to Atlanta, Georgia for DNA extraction, HPV detection, and typing using L1 PCR with type-specific hybridization to detect 37 HPV types.
Four hundred eighty eight specimens from 489 women were tested. At least one HPV type was found in 458 (94%) specimens. Of 458 participants who were HPV positive, 332 (72%) had two or more types. At least one type targeted by 9vHPV was detected in 95% of participants with CIN 3 (21/22), 82% with CIN 2 (37/45), and 65% with CIN 1 (119/184). (p
OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of hypertension in Alaska Natives and evaluate risk factors. DESIGN: Population-based univariate and multivariate analysis of blood pressure in 1124 Alaska Natives over 20 years of age. RESULTS: The sample had mean: age 45 years, body mass index 27, systolic pressure 123 mmHg and diastolic pressure 73 mmHg. The age-adjusted rate of hypertension > or = 160/95 mmHg was 9.1% and 6.8% among Athabascan Indians and Yup'ik Eskimos, respectively. After controlling for age and sex there was significantly more hypertension among Athabascan Indians (OR = 1.53, CI = 1.07-2.2, p = 0.019) compared to Yup'ik Eskimos. Race was significantly associated with blood pressure > or = 140/90 when controlled for age and overweight (p = 0.01, OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.95). The presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the following: intake of non-indigenous food (p = 0.01); mechanized activities (p = 0.01); and glucose intolerance in both women (p = 0.043) and men (p = 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed age (OR = 1.06, CI = 1.05-1.08) and overweight in both men (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.85-4.93) and women (OR = 2.76, CI = 1.81-4.19) to be significantly associated with BP > or = 140/90. CONCLUSION: Hypertension is no longer rare in Alaska Natives and is associated with overweight, non-indigenous diet, mechanized activities, and glucose intolerance.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the association of seal oil and salmon consumption with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) among Alaska Natives. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS--Screening was performed on 666 Yup'ik Eskimos and Athabaskan Indians > or = 40 years old in 15 villages. Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain partial food frequency data. A case was defined as IGT or NIDDM, either newly discovered or known. Newly discovered cases (11 patients with NIDDM and 17 with IGT) were determined by random blood glucose testing followed by a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for those with values > or = 6.72 mmol/l or for subjects with unconfirmed histories of glucose intolerance. Known cases included 26 patients with NIDDM and 1 with IGT. Control subjects had random blood glucoses