The occurrence of abscess disease, caseous lymphadenitis, and pulmonary adenomatosis in sheep in Denmark is reported for the first time. Subcutaneous abscesses were observed in imported 4- to 5-month-old lambs of the Lacaune breed 10 days after arrival in Denmark. Abscesses were mostly located in the head, neck and shoulder regions close to the regional lymph nodes. Bacteriological examinations revealed growth of Staphylococcus aureus ssp. anaerobius in all animals with subcutaneously located abscesses containing a viscous white-yellow odourless mass. In addition, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was isolated from abscesses in one animal and lesions consistent with pulmonary adenomatosis were found in four animals.
DANMAP is a Danish programme for integrated monitoring of and research on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans. The paper describes how bacteria from broilers, pigs, and cattle are collected, as well as the procedures for data handling and presentation of results. The bacteria from animals include certain pathogens, selected so that they are representative for submissions to Danish diagnostic laboratories, as well as zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella and Yersinia) and indicator bacteria (E. coli, E. faecium and E. faecalis), from samples collected at abattoirs. The latter samples are selected so that they are representative of the respective animal populations. Therefore, the apparent prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in the populations may be calculated. The isolates are identified to species level and the results of susceptibility testing are stored as continuous variables. All isolates are maintained in a strain collection so that they are available for subsequent research projects. The data handling facilities makes it possible to present results as percent resistant isolates or as the apparent prevalence of resistance in the population, or alternatively as graphical distributions of mm inhibition zones or MIC values. Computer routines have been established that make it possible to detect specific phenotypic expressions of resistance that may be of particular interest.
The aim of the present study was to examine the diversity of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine intramammary infections (IMI) in nine dairy herds, and compare these with isolates from other sites on the cows by phage- and ribotyping. Whether colonisation of milkers with S. aureus could be a source of infection for bovine IMI was investigated. In addition, 100 epidemiologically unrelated S. aureus isolates from asymptomatic human carriers were also phage- and ribotyped to compare the human and bovine reservoir of S. aureus in Denmark. A total of 625 S. aureus isolates from bovine IMI, bovine skin lesions, milking personnel, and non-farm-related human carriers were included in the study. Certain types predominated in one or several herds during the study period of one-and-a-half to two years, whereas the presence of other types was of a more sporadic nature. Within the individual herds, there was a close correspondence between ribo- and phage types of S. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infections and skin lesions. Isolates from milking personnel, however, were not identical to any of the predominant intramammary strains. Furthermore, several of the isolates from milking personnel showed ribo- and phage patterns identical to S. aureus isolates from human carriers. The findings of the present study underline the importance of strict milking hygiene and improvement of current mastitis therapy. The results support the hypothesis that some S. aureus mastitis strains are more contagious, virulent or persistent than others. The human reservoir of S. aureus does not play a major role as a source of bovine intramammary infections.
The international recognition of the 'stable to table' approach to food safety emphasises the need for appropriate and safe use of antibiotics in animal production. An appropriate use of antibiotics for food animals will preserve the long-term efficacy of existing antibiotics, support animal health and welfare and limit the risk of transfer of antibiotic resistance to humans. Furthermore, it may promote consumer confidence in the veterinary use of antibiotics. In advancing these arguments, the authors of this article argue that there is a need for a visible and operational policy for veterinary use of antibiotics, paying particular attention to the policies that are being developed in Denmark.
Urogenital secretions from a total of 510 patients (153 female and 151 male venereological patients, 123 gynaecological patients and 83 gynaecologically normal women) have been examined for group B streptococci (B-str.) and gonococci. The prevalence of B-str. (32%) among the female venereological patients was significantly higher than among the gynaecological patients (21.1%) and normal women (18.0%). Urethral samples gave a higher recovery rate of B-str. than cervical samples. A significant correlation was demonstrated between the presence of B-str. and the diagnosis of vaginitis in the gynaecological material. Fermentation types of B-str. isolated from urogenital patients differed considerably from the types prevalent in bovine isolates.