Links provided for frostbite images, not to these articles. Entire issue focuses on cold injuries: frostbite (true tissue freezing) and hypothermia (general body cooling). Also discusses immersion injury. A collection of papers by William J. Mills, M.D. and colleagues.
The drugs used in frostbite injury care are: Plasma volume expanders (low molecular weight dextran); vasodilating agents (tolazoline hydrochloride); hypotensive agents (guanethidine monosulfate, reserpine); hemorrheologic agents (oxpentifylline); calcium blocking agents (nifedipine); sympatholytic agents (phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride); anticoagulating agents (heparin); thrombolytic enzymes (streptokinase, tissue plasminogen activator--TPA); an industrial solvent (dimethyl sulfoxide--DMSO); anti-inflammatory agents such as nonsteroidal drugs, and acetylsalicylic acid, Ibuprofen. As yet, no clear treatment policy has been determined for preventing injury secondary to the formation of oxygen free radicals, damaging neutrophils or reperfusion injury. The role of oxygen free radical scavengers and factors causing reperfusion injury is unclear at this date. Since that first reported series of 51 patients in 1960-61, 1,282 patients have been seen. Of that number, 1,026 had a diagnosis of frostbite; 151 were diagnosed as hypothermia; and 105 diagnosed as immersion injury.