AIMS: The study evaluated the associations between glycometabolic parameters at admission and during hospitalization and 2 year all-cause mortality risk in an unselected cohort of consecutive patients with diabetes admitted for unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction to a university hospital during 1988-98. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 713 consecutive patients with diabetes were included. During 2 years of follow-up, 242 (34%) patients died. All analyses were retrospective using prospectively collected clinical data. The primary study endpoint was 2 year all-cause mortality collected from the Swedish cause-specific mortality register. In unadjusted analyses, high admission blood glucose (highest vs. lowest quartile: hazard ratio (HR) 2.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83, 3.86) and hypoglycaemia recorded during hospitalization (hypoglycaemia vs. normal: HR 1.77; 95% CI 1.09, 2.86) were both significantly associated with increased 2 year all-cause mortality risk. These associations remained significant after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: In the setting of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) among patients with diabetes, hyperglycaemia on arrival and hypoglycaemia during hospitalization are both independently associated with worse adjusted all-cause 2 year mortality risk. These observations suggest that the avoidance of both hyper- and hypoglycaemia during ACS events may be of similar importance, and glucose modulation remains an important objective to address in future randomized trials.
Comment In: Eur Heart J. 2005 Jul;26(13):1245-815914500
Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias in clinical practice and it is often diagnosed after a complication occurs. The study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) for atrial fibrillation in a male population-based study.
This study is a part of the "Study of Men Born in 1913 and 1923", a longitudinal prospective cohort study of men, living in the city of Gothenburg in Sweden. A population-based sample of 528 men was investigated in 1988 when they were aged 65 years (n=134) and 75 years (n=394), and they were followed up for 16 years. Blood samples were collected from all 528 men at baseline and plasma ANP levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Hazard ratios were estimated by competing-risk regression analysis. One hundred five participants were excluded because of a prior diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, severe hypertension, or severe chronic renal insufficiency. Of the remaining 423 participants, 90 men were diagnosed with atrial fibrillation over the 16-year follow-up. In multivariable analysis, men in the two highest quartiles of ANP levels had a significantly higher risk for atrial fibrillation compared with men in the lowest ANP quartile. The adjusted ratio was 3.14 (95% CI 1.59-6.20) for the third ANP quartile and 3.36 (95% CI 1.72-6.54) for the highest quartile of ANP level.
In this population-based longitudinal study, we found that elevated ANP levels at baseline predicted atrial fibrillation during a follow-up time of 16 years.
The presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with recurrent cryptogenic cerebrovascular event (CVE). The BioSTAR is a partly biodegradeable atrial septal repair implant. We investigated the feasibility and efficacy of the BioSTAR PFO-occluder.
From October 2007 to December 2008, 59 consecutive patients underwent PFO closure at our institution with a history of at least one cryptogenic CVE defined by a neurologist. During the study period, all patients, who fulfilled our institutional criteria for PFO closure, were included. No patients were lost to follow-up.
Of the 59 patients treated, a BioSTAR device could be implanted in 30 and in 29 patients another device, almost exclusively an Amplatzer, had to be used. No serious complications were observed during implantation of either. Four of 30 patients suffered a recurrent CVE after BioSTAR implantation as compared to 2/29 in the comparison group. At long-term follow-up 29/30 patients in the BioSTAR group had complete closure of their PFO as compared to 23 of 29 in the comparison group.
The BioSTAR device could be selected for use in small shunts less than 10 mm while the Amplatzer may be chosen for larger defects or more complicated anatomy.
Comparison of participants and non-participants in patient-reported outcome surveys: the case of Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease - International Study.
The last decade has seen a vast increase in the use of patient-reported outcomes. As patient-reported outcomes are used in order to capture patients' perspectives of their health and illness, it is a prerequisite for accurate patient-reported outcome evaluations to use representative samples. In order to evaluate representativeness, the present study focussed on the comparison between participants and non-participants in the Swedish branch of the international study APPROACH-IS (Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease - International Study), regarding demographic, clinical, and health status characteristics.
Eligible patients for APPROACH-IS were identified and selected from SWEDCON, the Swedish registry for congenital heart disease (CHD). Overall, 912 eligible patients were identified, of whom 471 participated, 398 did not participate, and 43 were either unreachable or declined to participate in APPROACH-IS. The participants and non-participants were compared in terms of statistical significance and effect sizes.
Significant differences were observed between participants and non-participants for sex, age, primary diagnosis, number of cardiac operations, and fatigue; however, the effect sizes were in general small, except for the difference in primary diagnosis. No differences between the two groups were found in number of catheterisations, implanted device, the distribution of NYHA functional class, or health status and symptoms.
This study shows that participants and non-participants are relatively comparable groups, which confirms the representativeness of the participants. The Swedish data from APPROACH-IS can therefore be reliably generalised to the population of adults with CHD in Sweden.
BACKGROUND: Treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is changing, and differences in medical practice are observed within and between countries on the basis of local practice patterns and available technology. These differing approaches provide an opportunity to evaluate medical practice and outcomes at the population level. The primary aim of this study was to compare medical care in patients hospitalized with AMI in 2 large cities in Sweden and the United States. A secondary aim was to compare medical outcomes. METHODS: All resident patients (age range, 30-74 years) hospitalized with AMI in Göteborg, Sweden (1995-1996), and a representative population-based sample of all patients with AMI in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minn (1995). RESULTS: Patients with AMI in Göteborg (GB) were older than patients in Minneapolis/St. Paul (MSP), but fewer patients in GB had a prior history of cardiovascular disease. During the AMI admission, coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were performed twice as frequently in MSP than in GB. Echocardiogram and exercise testing were more frequently performed in GB. During hospitalization, beta-blockers were more frequently prescribed in GB, whereas calcium channel blockers, long- and short-acting nitrates, intravenous nitroglycerine, digitalis, aspirin, oral anticoagulants, heparin, and lidocaine were significantly more common in MSP. Thrombolysis, acute PTCA, ACE inhibitors, and diuretics were similar. Reinfarction was higher in men in GB (4% vs 1%, P
BACKGROUND: Patients with right bundle branch block comprise 5-9% of all patients with acute myocardial infarction. In spite of this, limited data exist on early diagnosis or the usefulness of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in these patients. METHODS: A prospective multicenter study with 14 Swedish coronary care units. Patients with right bundle branch block and suspicion of acute myocardial infarction with less than 6 hours symptom duration were included. All patients were monitored with continuous vectorcardiography for 12-24 hours. RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients were included, 43% had acute myocardial infarction. Patients with acute myocardial infarction had significantly higher initial ST-vector magnitude values (P = 0.0014) compared to patients without acute myocardial infarction. Patients with acute myocardial infarction also showed gradual regression of ST-vector magnitude over time that was not seen for patients without acute myocardial infarction (P = 0.005). ST-vector magnitude measured at the J-point differentiated best between patients with and without acute myocardial infarction. A cutoff value of 125 microV for initial ST-vector magnitude resulted in 55% sensitivity and 87% specificity for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Over time, patients with acute myocardial infarction showed greater changes in QRS-vector difference compared to patients without acute myocardial infarction (P = 0.052). CONCLUSION: Vectorcardiographic monitoring shows good diagnostic abilities for patients with right bundle branch block and clinical suspicion of acute myocardial infarction and could be useful for continuous monitoring of these patients.
BACKGROUND: Thrombolytic therapy results in reperfusion of the occluded coronary vessel in approximately 75% of treated patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Unsuccessful thrombolysis results in impaired outcome. This study was undertaken to evaluate reperfusion assessments with 12-lead standard static electrocardiography (ECG) and continuous vectorcardiography (VCG) in AMI patients treated with thrombolytic therapy, with particular emphasis on the value of these assessments in relation to long-term outcome. METHODS: ST-recovery analysis 90 and 180 min after the start of thrombolytic therapy was performed by repeated ECG and by VCG in 63 AMI patients. Median follow-up was 255 days. RESULTS: No significant differences in long-term outcome were found between patients with or without obtained reperfusion, as assessed by ECG. For VCG, we found significant elevated relative risks for experiencing death (relative risk = 11.00, confidence interval = 2.70-44.90); P = 0.0008 for the group with ST-vector magnitude recovery of less than 50% at 90 min from start of thrombolytic therapy. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that early reperfusion assessment with VCG enables the prediction of long-term outcome and is superior to reperfusion assessment with standard static ECG in this regard. We therefore recommend continuous ischemia monitoring of AMI patients treated with thrombolytic therapy as a routine procedure.
Cost and health outcome of primary percutaneous coronary intervention versus thrombolysis in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction-Results of the Swedish Early Decision reperfusion Study (SWEDES) trial.
In ST-elevation myocardial infarction, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has a superior clinical outcome, but it may increase costs in comparison to thrombolysis. The aim of the study was to compare costs, clinical outcome, and quality-adjusted survival between primary PCI and thrombolysis.
Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction were randomized to primary PCI with adjunctive enoxaparin and abciximab (n = 101), or to enoxaparin followed by reteplase (n = 104). Data on the use of health care resources, work loss, and health-related quality of life were collected during a 1-year period. Cost-effectiveness was determined by comparing costs and quality-adjusted survival. The joint distribution of incremental costs and quality-adjusted survival was analyzed using a nonparametric bootstrap approach.
Clinical outcome did not differ significantly between the groups. Compared with the group treated with thrombolysis, the cost of interventions was higher in the PCI-treated group ($4,602 vs $3,807; P = .047), as well as the cost of drugs ($1,309 vs $1,202; P = .001), whereas the cost of hospitalization was lower ($7,344 vs $9,278; P = .025). The cost of investigations, outpatient care, and loss of production did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment arms. Total cost and quality-adjusted survival were $25,315 and 0.759 vs $27,819 and 0.728 (both not significant) for the primary PCI and thrombolysis groups, respectively. Based on the 1-year follow-up, bootstrap analysis revealed that in 80%, 88%, and 89% of the replications, the cost per health outcome gained for PCI will be
The aim of this study was to assess exercise capacity, physical activity, and health-related quality of life within a broad and unselected group of adults with CHD.
From April 2009 to February 2014, 1310 patients were assessed for suitability to participate in this single-centre cross-sectional study. Seven hundred and forty-seven (57%) patients were included, performed a submaximal bicycle test, and answered questionnaires regarding physical activity and health-related quality of life. Exercise capacity, physical activity, and health-related quality of life were compared with reference values and correlations were studied.
The exercise capacities of men and women with CHD were 58.7 and 66.3%, respectively, of reference values. Approximately, 20-25% of the patients did not achieve the recommended amount of physical activity. In addition, men scored significantly less points on 7 out of 10 scales of health-related quality of life and women in 6 out of 10 scales, compared with reference values. The strongest correlation was between exercise capacity and the Short Form-36 (physical function).
Exercise capacity was impaired in all adults with CHD, including those with less complicated CHD. One-quarter of the patients did not achieve the recommended levels of physical activity. Exercise tests followed by individualised exercise prescriptions may be offered to all patients with CHD aiming to increase exercise capacity, levels of physical activity, improve health-related quality of life, and reduce the risk of acquired life-style diseases.