The aim of this study was to investigate changes over six years in physical activity and sedentary behavior assessed with accelerometry in a representative sample of Swedish adults.
A longitudinal study over six years.
The cohort consisted of 1172 participants (46% males) in 2002 and 511 participants (46% males) in 2008, of which 478 (45% males) had valid data on both occasions. Mean (SD) age at baseline was 45 (15) years. To analyze changes over time, a mixed linear model for average intensity physical activity (counts/min) and time in sedentary behavior and light- and moderate- or higher-intensity physical activity was conducted, stratified for sex and age, and adjusted for BMI, education, self-rated health and ? wear time.
Over a six year period no significant changes were seen in the total cohort for average intensity and time in moderate- or higher intensity physical activity. A significant decrease in average intensity physical activity was found for men (p=0.006) and those aged 60+ years at baseline (p
To investigate the associations of objectively assessed sedentary time, light intensity physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous intensity PA (MVPA), and total PA with all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) or cancer in a Swedish population-based cohort with 15 years follow-up time.
Longitudinal prospective cohort study.
Data from 851 persons (56% women) =35 years at baseline were included. Primary exposure variables were time (min/day) spent sedentary, in light intensity PA and in MVPA, and total counts from an Actigraph 7164 accelerometer. Data on all-cause mortality and mortality from CVD or cancer were obtained from Swedish registers. Cox proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) of mortality with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Compared with the least sedentary participants, those in the most sedentary tertile had an increased risk of all-cause mortality, HR: 2.7 (1.4, 5.3), CVD mortality, HR: 5.5 (1.4, 21.2) and cancer mortality, HR: 4.3 (1.2, 16.0). For all-cause mortality, those in the highest light intensity PA tertile had a HR 0.34 (0.17, 0.67) compared with the lowest tertile. A similar pattern was found for CVD and cancer mortality. More time spent in MVPA was associated with the largest risk reduction for CVD mortality, with an almost 90% lower risk in the tertile with the most time in MVPA.
This study confirms a strong inverse relationship between MVPA and mortality, and adds new insight for the understanding of the associations between sedentary time and light intensity PA and mortality.
The purpose was to describe the patterns of commuting to school in young people and to examine its associations with physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness.
The sample comprised 2271 Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents (1218 females) aged 9-10 years and 15-16 years. Data were collected in 1998/99. Mode of commuting to and from school was assessed by questionnaire. Time spent (min/day) in PA and average PA (counts/min) was measured by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by means of a maximal cycle ergometer test.
Sixty-one percent of the participants reported active commuting to school (ACS). Estonian youth showed lower levels of ACS than Swedish (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.76) and girls reported lower levels than boys (0.74; 0.62-0.88). ACS boys showed higher PA levels than non-ACS boys for moderate, vigorous, MVPA, and average PA levels (all p = 0.01). Participants who cycled to school had higher cardiorespiratory fitness than walkers or passive travellers (p
To explore the associations between objectively assessed intensity levels of physical activity and academic achievement and test whether cardiovascular fitness mediates the association between physical activity and academic achievement.
Cross-sectional data were gathered in Swedish 9th-grade students (n = 232; mean age = 16 years; 52% girls). School grades, pubertal phase, skinfold thickness, cardiovascular fitness, and physical activity were measured objectively. Mother's education, family structure, and parental monitoring were self-reported. Data were analyzed with linear regression analyses.
After controlling for confounding factors, academic achievement was associated with vigorous physical activity in girls (beta = .30, P
Seasonal and regional variation may influence physical activity (PA) patterns. These associations are in need of further investigation. The objective of the current study was to examine the association of season and region on objectively measured PA. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with 1172 participants living in Sweden. Data on PA were collected throughout a calendar year using accelerometry. Regions were categorised as south (Götaland), central (Svealand) and north (Norrland). Outcome variables included accelerometer-measured mean counts per minute, sedentary time and time in low intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (MVPA) or greater. ANCOVA was used to determine the associations of season and region with PA, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and education. The results showed that during the Spring season more time was spent in MVPA than during the Autumn. For participants living in the south of Sweden, a significant trend for season was found for MVPA, with Spring having the highest MVPA (P = 0.025). Season had a borderline significant association with MVPA or higher intensity activities (P = 0.051). No significant effects of region or season on total PA, low-intensity PA and sedentary periods of time were observed. The results indicate that studies conducted in a population living in high latitudes, may not be significantly affected by seasonality or region when assessing PA.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether physical activity attenuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat estimates in adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Athens, Greece; Dortmund, Germany; Ghent, Belgium; Heraklion, Greece; Lille, France; Pécs, Hungary; Rome, Italy; Stockholm, Sweden; Vienna, Austria; and Zaragoza, Spain, from October 2006 to December 2007. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (n = 752). MAIN EXPOSURE: Physical activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds; body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]) and body fat percentage were calculated. RESULTS: The A allele of the FTO polymorphism was significantly associated with higher BMI (+0.42 per risk allele), higher body fat percentage (+1.03% per risk allele), and higher waist circumference (+0.85 cm per risk allele). We detected significant or borderline gene x physical activity interactions for the studied body fat estimates (for interaction, P = .02, .06, and .10 for BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference, respectively). Indeed, the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on these body fat parameters was much lower in adolescents who met the daily physical activity recommendations (ie, >/=60 min/d of moderate to vigorous physical activity) compared with those who did not: +0.17 vs +0.65 per risk allele in BMI, respectively; +0.40% vs +1.70% per risk allele in body fat percentage, respectively; and +0.60 vs +1.15 cm per risk allele in waist circumference, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adolescents meeting the daily physical activity recommendations may overcome the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on obesity-related traits.
To examine whether modes of commuting to school at baseline and changes in commuting were related to 6-year changes in cardiorespiratory fitness in youth.
A total of 262 (142 girls) Swedish children (9 years at entry) were measured at baseline (1998/9) and follow-up (2004/5). Mode of commuting to school was assessed by questionnaire and fitness by a maximal bicycle test.
At baseline, 34% of children used passive modes of commuting (e.g., car, motorcycle, bus, train), 54% walked, and 12% bicycled to school. Six years later the percentage of bicyclists increased 19% and the percentage of walkers decreased 19%. On average, children who bicycled to school increased their fitness 13% (p=0.03) more than those who used passive modes and 20% (p=0.002) more than those who walked. Children who used passive modes or walked at baseline and bicycled to school at 6 years later increased their fitness 14% (p=0.001) more than those who remained using passive modes or walking at follow-up.
Implementing initiatives that encourage bicycling to school may be a useful strategy to increase cardiorespiratory fitness of children.
We examined whether birth weight (BW) predicts changes in body composition over a 6-year period in Swedish children and adolescents. For this purpose, a total of 247 children (55.5% girls) and 162 adolescents (60.5% girls) were included in the study and were followed up 6 years later. BW was obtained from parental records. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, and the bicep, tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds, and we calculated BMI, fat-free mass (FFM), and the sum of five skinfolds. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Changes in pubertal status and baseline anthropometric estimates were used as confounders in all analysis. In the children cohort, we observed that BW was inversely associated with changes in BMI (ß = -0.736, P = 0.002) and the sum of five skinfolds (ß = -6.381, P = 0.009) regardless of confounders and physical activity, only in girls. We did not find any significant association between BW and adiposity gain estimates in the adolescent cohort. These findings give further support to the concept that low BW may have a programming effect of subsequent adiposity gain from childhood to adolescence. We also confirm the sex-related differences in the programming effect of body composition.
To be able to draw any conclusions regarding the health effects of occupational physical activity (OPA), more information is needed regarding valid measures to assess OPA. Aims were to compare OPA as assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long version (IPAQ-L) with OPA assessed with an accelerometer and to assess the contribution of OPA to total PA.
Working adults (n = 441; mean age = 49.4 yrs; 44% males) wore an accelerometer for 7 days in free-living situations and completed the IPAQL. Comparisons were made between IPAQ-L-work and accelerometer data limited to working time (Moderate and Vigorous PA (accelerometer-MVPA-work) and average intensity). Subgroup analyses were performed.
This study investigated whether large fluctuations in food availability during grandparents' early development influenced grandchildren's cardiovascular mortality. We reported earlier that changes in availability of food - from good to poor or from poor to good - during intrauterine development was followed by a double risk of sudden death as an adult, and that mortality rate can be associated with ancestors' childhood availability of food. We have now studied transgenerational responses (TGR) to sharp differences of harvest between two consecutive years' for ancestors of 317 people in Överkalix, Sweden.
The confidence intervals were very wide but we found a striking TGR. There was no response in cardiovascular mortality in the grandchild from sharp changes of early exposure, experienced by three of the four grandparents (maternal grandparents and paternal grandfathers). If, however, the paternal grandmother up to puberty lived through a sharp change in food supply from one year to next, her sons' daughters had an excess risk for cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.05-6.92). Selection or learning and imitation are unlikely explanations. X-linked epigenetic inheritance via spermatozoa seemed to be plausible, with the transmission, limited to being through the father, possibly explained by the sex differences in meiosis.
The shock of change in food availability seems to give specific transgenerational responses.