OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of adverse birth and neonatal outcome, and miscarriage in women who used sulfamethizole during pregnancy. METHODS: The association between use of sulfamethizole and adverse birth and neonatal outcome was investigated in a case-control and a cohort study in Denmark. We used data from the Prescription Database, the Birth Registry and the Hospital Discharge Registry in North Jutland County to study any association between sulfamethizole use and first recorded miscarriage. The cohort analysis included 3484 women who received a prescription for sulfamethizole from 30 days before conception to date of delivery, and 60175 women who did not use a sulphonamide-containing drug during pregnancy or 30 days before conception. The case-control analysis included 3347 women who had a miscarriage, of whom 90 had taken sulfamethizole, and 22599 primiparous controls who had a live birth. RESULTS: Among women who received prescriptions for sulfamethizole, adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for adverse birth outcome were: malformation 1.17 (0.95-1.43); low birth weight 0.69 (0.49-0.98); pre-term birth 1.12 (0.97-1.30); stillbirth 1.02 (0.61-1.68); neonatal jaundice 1.14 (0.38-3.46); and for receiving a prescription for sulfamethizole within 1 week before miscarriage 1.66 (0.92-2.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no increased risk of congenital malformation, stillbirth or pre-term birth, and no association between use of sulfamethizole late in pregnancy and risk of neonatal jaundice. There was an increased risk of miscarriage after exposure to sulfamethizole during the week before miscarriage, but further studies are needed to evaluate whether this increased risk is causal.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that women with Chlamydia trachomatis-positive test results worry about their future fertility. GOAL: The goal of this study was to give women infected with C. trachomatis a fertility prognosis by analyzing ectopic pregnancies and birth rates STUDY DESIGN: An historical follow-up study in a cohort of 22,264 women tested for the infection was conducted. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis with time-dependent covariates showed that women with at least 1 C. trachomatis-positive test result had a lower incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy than women with negative test results only (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.96). We found comparable birth rates in the 2 groups (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Counseling of women with a C. trachomatis-positive test result should emphasize the benefit of detection and treatment of the infection in terms of future morbidity.
Preventive health checks may identify individuals with an unhealthy lifestyle and motivate them to change behaviour. However, knowledge about the impact of the different components included in preventive health checks is deficient. The aim of this trial is to evaluate whether including cardiorespiratory fitness testing in preventive health checks 1) increases cardiorespiratory fitness level and motivation to change physical activity behaviour and 2) reduces physical inactivity prevalence and improves self-rated health compared with preventive health checks without fitness testing.
An open-label, household-cluster, randomized controlled trial with a two-group parallel design is used. The trial is embedded in a population-based health promotion program, "Check your Health Preventive Program", in which all 30-49 year-old citizens in a Danish municipality are offered a preventive health check. In each arm of the trial, 750 citizens will be recruited (1,500 in total). The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed by submaximal cycle ergometer testing after one year. An intermediate outcome is the percentage of participants increasing motivation for physical activity behaviour change between baseline and two-weeks follow-up assessed using the Transtheoretical Model's stages of change. Secondary outcomes include changes from baseline to one-year follow-up in physical inactivity prevalence measured by a modified version of the questions developed by Saltin and Grimby, and in self-rated health measures using the Short-Form 12, Health Survey, version 2.
This trial will contribute to a critical appraisal of the value of fitness testing as part of preventive health checks. The conduction in real-life community and general practice structures makes the trial findings applicable and transferable to other municipalities providing support to decision-makers in the development of approaches to increase levels of physical activity and improve health.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02224248. Registered 8 August 2014.
BACKGROUND: Fever of unknown origin is associated with cancer, but the tumour types most commonly involved and the prognostic implications of this relation have not been studied. We aimed to assess the risk of cancer and survival after hospital admission for fever of unknown origin in a nationwide Danish follow-up study. METHODS: We linked the Danish national registry of patients and the nationwide cancer registry, and assessed cancer risk for 43,205 patients discharged for the first time from Danish hospitals after admission for fever of unknown origin during 1977-97. We compared cancer frequency with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population, and survival of patients with cancer who had had fever of unknown origin with that of controls (ie, patients with cancer matched for cancer site, age at time of cancer diagnosis, and year of cancer diagnosis). FINDINGS: Median follow-up was 6.3 years (IQR 2.7-12.3). During the first year of follow-up, 399 cancers were diagnosed in those who had had fever of unknown origin (standardised incidence ratio 2.3 [95% CI 2.1-2.5]). These individuals had an increased risk of developing cancer--in particular haematological malignant disease; sarcoma; and cancers of the liver, brain, kidney, colon, and pancreas. After 1 year of follow-up, individuals had an increased risk of developing haematological malignant disease and cancers of the liver, brain, and kidney. A slightly higher proportion of people diagnosed with cancer within 1 year of hospital discharge after fever of unknown origin had distant metastases compared with controls (101 [34%] of 294 vs 819 [28%] of 2907; prevalence ratio 1.2 [95% CI 1.0-1.4], and had worse survival than did controls (mortality rate ratio 1.4 [95% CI 1.2-1.6]). INTERPRETATION: Hospital admission for fever of unknown origin is a marker of occult cancer and is associated with a poor outlook.
: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Yet, our knowledge about the prevalence of poor CRF is limited. We investigated the prevalence of poor CRF among middle-aged Danish adults from a community-based health promotion program, including identification of a subgroup with high cardiovascular mortality risk. This cross-sectional study included 2,253 middle-aged adults, who completed a preventive health check including CRF testing. CRF (ml O 2 /min/kg) was assessed using the Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer test. High 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk as defined in the Danish 2016 guidelines was assessed using questionnaires, health examinations, and prescription data from the Danish National Prescription Registry. The prevalence of poor CRF was 51.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 48.7-54.7) among men and 31.3% (95% CI 28.7-34.1) among women. A total of 216 (19.4%) men and 220 (19.3%) women were identified with a high 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk. Among these, 65.0% of men (95% CI 58.2-71.3) and 44.1% of women (95% CI 37.4-50.9) had poor CRF. Half of men and one third of women participating in a community-based health promotion program were identified with poor CRF. Among high-risk individuals, two thirds of men and almost every second woman had a poor CRF. Our results emphasise the need for effective public health strategies and interventions to increase CRF in the general population and among high-risk individuals in particular in order to improve public health and reduce mortality.
The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is a widely used measure. A recent methodological study provided an accurate approximate relationship between an SMR and difference in lifetime expectancies. This study examines the usefulness of the theoretical relationship, when comparing historic mortality data in four Scandinavian populations.
For Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, data on mortality every fifth year in the period 1950 to 2010 were obtained. Using 1980 as the reference year, SMRs and difference in life expectancy were calculated. The assumptions behind the theoretical relationship were examined graphically. The theoretical relationship predicts a linear association with a slope, [Formula: see text], between log(SMR) and difference in life expectancies, and the theoretical prediction and calculated differences in lifetime expectancies were compared. We examined the linear association both for life expectancy at birth and at age 30. All analyses were done for females, males and the total population.
The approximate relationship provided accurate predictions of actual differences in lifetime expectancies. The accuracy of the predictions was better when age was restricted to above 30, and improved if the changes in mortality rate were close to a proportional change. Slopes of the linear relationship were generally around 9 for females and 10 for males.
The theoretically derived relationship between SMR and difference in life expectancies provides an accurate prediction for comparing populations with approximately proportional differences in mortality, and was relatively robust. The relationship may provide a useful prediction of differences in lifetime expectancies, which can be more readily communicated and understood.
A previous study unexpectedly showed an increased, statistically imprecise, risk of low Apgar score in children of women redeeming prescriptions for pivmecillinam in late pregnancy. To improve statistical precision we extended the previous dataset with data for 5 more y, and in addition added more neonatal outcomes. We thus examined the risk of adverse birth and neonatal outcomes among pregnant users of pivmecillinam based on population-based registries in North Jutland County, Denmark. We included 63,659 women with a live birth, or stillbirth after the 28th week of gestation. 2031 had redeemed prescriptions for pivmecillinam any time during pregnancy, 559 in the first trimester and 371 within 28 d before delivery. Adjusted odds ratios were: birth defects 0.83 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.53-1.32) for exposure during first trimester, preterm delivery 0.96 (95% CI 0.79-1.18) and low birth weight 0.79 (95% CI 0.52-1.20) for exposure any time during pregnancy, and stillbirth 1.19 (95% CI 0.30-4.80), low Apgar score 1.17 (95% CI 0.37-3.66), hypoglycaemia 1.03 (95% CI 0.53-2.00), and respiratory distress syndrome 0.79 (95% CI 0.38-1.68) for exposure within 28 d before delivery. Use of pivmecillinam during pregnancy did not appear to increase the risk of adverse birth and neonatal outcomes; however, statistical precision is still low.