Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clin Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-416 85 Gothenburg, Sweden.
To examine the relationship between diabetes distress and gender, and the association with glycemic control, social support, health behaviors, and socio-economic status.
All adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years, in the national, pediatric diabetes registry SWEDIABKIDS with type 1 diabetes were invited to complete an online questionnaire. A total of 2112 teenagers were identified.
453 complete responses were valid for analyses. Young women scored significantly higher on the distress-screening instrument DDS-2. Almost half of the female respondents exhibited moderate to severe diabetes distress-more than twice the proportion than among male respondents (44% vs 19%). Females reported twice as high scores on the fear of hypoglycemia scale (P?
To investigate response rates for online and paper versions of an identical questionnaire and the differences between respondents to each and between respondents and non-respondents among a population with type 2 diabetes.
We mailed letters containing an invitation to complete an online questionnaire to 2045 individuals, followed by two reminders; the second included a paper version of the questionnaire.
In total, 1081 people responded to either version of the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 54%. Compared to total respondents, respondents completing the online version were more likely to be male, better educated, and younger, and have had diabetes for a shorter period of time. Compared to non-respondents, respondents were more likely to be male and have a lower hemoglobin A1c level.
Web-based surveys are capable of delivering a substantial number of responses cost-effectively. However, disadvantages related to selection bias should be taken into account, and mixed-mode methods should be considered when surveying populations with type 2 diabetes.
To determine preferences among patients with type 2 diabetes for content and format of patient education.
Using discrete choice methods, we surveyed patients about their preferences for patient education. We investigated preferred content and format regarding education on living well with diabetes, preventing complications, healthy eating, exercising, and psychosocial issues related to diabetes.
We obtained usable responses from 2187 patients with type 2 diabetes. Acquiring competencies to live a fulfilling life with diabetes, adjust diet and exercise habits, and prevent complications was significantly more highly valued than was simply being informed about these topics. Patients preferred to be involved in the planning of their diabetes care and valued individually tailored content higher than prescheduled content. Women and younger patients found diet and exercise significantly more important than did men, and patients with poorly controlled diabetes valued all education and support more highly than did patients in better control.
Patients with type 2 diabetes prefer to be actively involved in educational activities, to develop competencies to prevent and manage complications, and to involve their social network in supporting them.
Future patient education should enhance participation and competence development and include relatives.
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of hypoglycemia according to severity and time of onset on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a Canadian population.
Time trade-off (TTO) methodology was used to estimate health utilities associated with hypoglycemic events in a representative sample of the Canadian population. A global analysis conducted in the United Kingdom, Canada, Germany and Sweden has been published. The present Canadian analysis focuses on 3 populations: general, type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Using a web-based survey, participants (>18 years) assessed the utility of 13 different health states (severe, non-severe, daytime and nocturnal hypoglycemia at different frequencies) using a scale from 1 (perfect health) to 0 (death). The average disutility value for each type of event was calculated.
Of 2258 participants, 1696 completers were included in the analysis. A non-severe nocturnal hypoglycemic event was associated with a significantly greater disutility than a non-severe daytime event (-0.0076 vs. -0.0056, respectively; p=0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference between severe nocturnal and severe daytime events (-0.0616 vs. -0.0592; p=0.76). Severe hypoglycemia was associated with greater disutility than non-severe hypoglycemia (p
There are limited data on the potential short-term benefits associated with reductions in HbA1c levels, and understanding any immediate improvements in health related quality-of-life (HRQoL) through better glycaemic control may help inform diabetes management decisions. This time-trade-off (TTO) study investigated the short-term impact on HRQoL associated with three different aspects of diabetes management; HbA1c change, body weight change, and the complexity of treatment regimen.
The study was designed in three stages: Stage 1) Qualitative telephone interviews with people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Denmark who had experienced a decrease in their HbA1c level. Stage 2) A validation survey with people with T2D in Denmark to obtain quantifiable knowledge on the short-term effects of a change in HbA1c levels. Stage 3) TTO survey using health states based on results from stage 2. Respondents were either adults with T2D (Sweden) or from the general public (UK and Denmark) and were separately asked to evaluate seven health states through an internet-based survey.
Results from 4060 respondents were available for the TTO analysis (UK n = 1777; Denmark n = 1799, Sweden n = 484). 'Well-controlled diabetes' was associated with utilities of 0.85-0.91 and 'not well-controlled diabetes' with utilities of 0.71-0.80 in all countries. Difference in utilities per HbA1c percentage point was smallest in Sweden and largest in Denmark (between 0.025-0.034 per HbA1c percentage point respectively). The treatment management health state associated with the lowest disutility was the once-daily insulin regimen. The disutility associated with per kg of weight change ranged from 0.0041-0.0073.
Changes in HbA1c levels, insulin regimen and body weight are all likely to affect HRQoL for patients with T2D. A change in HbA1c is likely to have a short-term impact in addition to the effect on the development of long term diabetes complications. A treatment which has a simple regimen with fewer injections, and/or the need for less planning, and that causes weight loss or less weight gain, compared with other treatments, will have a positive impact on HRQoL.
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Hypoglycaemic events, particularly nocturnal, affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) via acute symptoms, altered behaviour and fear of future events. We examined the respective disutility associated with a single event of daytime, nocturnal, severe and non-severe hypoglycaemia.
Representative samples were taken from Canada, Germany, Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom. Individuals completed an internet-based questionnaire designed to quantify the HRQoL associated with different diabetes- and/or hypoglycaemia-related health states. HRQoL was measured on a utility scale: 1 (perfect health) to 0 (death) using the time trade-off method. Three populations were studied: 8286 respondents from the general population; 551 people with type 1 diabetes; and 1603 with type 2 diabetes. Respondents traded life expectancy for improved health states and evaluated the health states of well-controlled diabetes and diabetes with non-severe/severe and daytime/nocturnal hypoglycaemic events.
In the general population, non-severe nocturnal hypoglycaemic events were associated with a 0.007 disutility compared with 0.004 for non-severe daytime episodes, equivalent to a significant 63% increase in negative impact. Severe daytime and nocturnal events were associated with a 0.057 and a 0.062 disutility, respectively, which were not significantly different.
This study applies an established health economic methodology to derive disutilities associated with hypoglycaemia stratified by onset time and severity using a large multinational population. It reveals substantial individual and cumulative detrimental effects of hypoglycaemic events - particularly nocturnal - on HRQoL, reinforcing the clinical imperative of avoiding hypoglycaemia.
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The objective was to elicit patient preferences for medicine administration method in the management of acute agitation episodes among patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The patients' experiences of acute agitation episodes and their management of episodes were also explored. Data were collected via an anonymous, internet-based survey of residents in Denmark or Sweden with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (October 2014 to December 2014). Inclusion criteria were having a diagnosis of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and being above 18 years of age. The questionnaire included questions about preferences for medication attributes, experiences with pharmacological treatment for agitation and involvement in treatment plans. A total of 237 diagnosed patients (61 with schizophrenia; 176 with bipolar disorder) completed the questionnaire. Agitation episodes were experienced by 90% of the respondents. In total, 83% of the respondents reported having received treatment with tablets. When patients were presented with the attributes of an inhalation method, respondents stated that the fast onset of action, low risk of adverse reactions and least invasive form of drug delivery were positive attributes of treatment with inhalation. Inhalation is a new delivery route for treatment of acute agitation in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Inhalation is the preferred treatment method for acute agitation among Danish and Swedish patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia.