Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution.
We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.
We obtained data from four cohorts with enrolment during 1985-2005 in Denmark, Austria and Italy. Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOX), particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10µm (PM10), less than 2.5µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 and 10µm (PM2.5-10) and PM2.5 absorbance (soot) at baseline home addresses were estimated using land-use regression models from the ESCAPE project. We also investigated traffic density on the nearest road. We used Cox proportional-hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random-effects meta-analyses to estimate summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Out of 174,770 included participants, 279 liver cancer cases were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 17 years. In each cohort, HRs above one were observed for all exposures with exception of PM2.5 absorbance and traffic density. In the meta-analysis, all exposures were associated with elevated HRs, but none of the associations reached statistical significance. The summary HR associated with a 10-µg/m(3) increase in NO2 was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 1.30) and 1.34 (95% CI: 0.76, 2.35) for a 5-µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5.
The results provide suggestive evidence that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer. Confidence intervals for associations with NO2 and NOX were narrower than for the other exposures.
Land use regression (LUR) models predict spatial variation of ambient concentrations, but little is known about the validity in predicting personal exposures. In this study, the association of LUR modeled concentrations of PM2.5 components with measured personal concentrations was determined. The elements of interest were copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn).
In Helsinki (Finland), Utrecht (the Netherlands) and Barcelona (Spain) five participants from urban background, five from suburban background and five from busy street sites were selected in each city (15 participants per city). Outdoor, indoor and personal 96-hour PM2.5 samples were collected by the participants over periods of two weeks in three different seasons (winter, summer and spring/autumn) and the overall average was calculated. Elemental composition was measured by ED-XRF spectrometry. The LUR models for the average ambient concentrations of each element were developed by the ESCAPE project.
LUR models predicted the within-city variation of average outdoor Cu and Fe concentrations moderately well (range in R(2) 27-67% for Cu and 24-54% for Fe). The outdoor concentrations of the other elements were not well predicted. The LUR modeled concentration only significantly correlated with measured personal Fe exposure in Utrecht and Ni and V in Helsinki. The LUR model predictions did not correlate with measured personal Cu exposure. After excluding observations with an indoor/outdoor ratio of >1.5, modeled Cu outdoor concentrations correlated with indoor concentrations in Helsinki and Utrecht and personal concentrations in Utrecht. The LUR model predictions were associated with measured outdoor, indoor and personal concentrations for all elements when the data for the three cities was pooled.
Within-city modeled variation of elemental composition of PM2.5 did not predict measured variation in personal exposure well.
The special ecological environment of the Arctic has brought about a large number of salt-tolerant and psychrotolerant microorganisms. We isolated two culturable bacterial strains of the genus Mesonia; one from the Arctic ocean, Mesonia algae K4-1, and one from the tropical sea, Mesonia sp. HuA40. Our genome analysis and phenotypic experiments indicated that Mesonia algae K4-1 is a moderately halophilic and psychrophilic bacterium. Mesonia algae K4-1 can tolerate 3-14% NaCl and grow at a wide range of temperatures from 4 to 50°C. Mesonia sp. HuA40 is a mesophilic bacterium that can only grow with 3-9% NaCl. In addition, the salt adaptation strategy of Mesonia algae K4-1 accumulates organic osmolytes in the cell. RNA helicases, glutathione and organic compatible solutes may play important roles in maintaining the metabolism and physiological function of Mesonia algae K4-1 under cold stress. Moreover, the ability of Mesonia algae K4-1 to adapt to an oligotrophic marine environment is likely due to the synthesis of a large number of extracellular polysaccharides and the secretion of various families of extracellular proteases. This study systematically analyzed the relationship between genomic differentiation and environmental factors of the Mesonia genus and revealed the possible adaptation mechanism of Mesonia algae K4-1 in the extreme Arctic marine environment at the genomic level.
Long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality but little is known about the role of the chemical composition of PM. This study examined the association of residential long-term exposure to PM components with incident coronary events.
Eleven cohorts from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy participated in this analysis. 5,157 incident coronary events were identified within 100,166 persons followed on average for 11.5 years. Long-term residential concentrations of PM