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Culture and mental health: An overview

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102029
Source
Chapter 16 of Cultural Conceptions of Mental Health and Therapy (pp. 359-388), A.J. Marsella and G.M. White, eds. D. Reidel Publishing Co.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1982
Author
Marsella, AJ
Source
Chapter 16 of Cultural Conceptions of Mental Health and Therapy (pp. 359-388), A.J. Marsella and G.M. White, eds. D. Reidel Publishing Co.
Date
1982
Language
English
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Keywords
Classification
Cross-cultural studies
Cultural variations
Culture
Epidemiology
Etiology
Manifestation
Mental disorder
Mental health
Western psychiatry
Abstract
Recent decades have witnessed an increased interest in the cross-cultural study of mental disorders. This interest has manifested itself across a variety of disciplines and has served as an impetus for the development of a number of subdisciplinary specialties. Regardless of the different names which have been applied, the central concern of all of these specialties has been to illuminate the role of cultural factors in the etiology, expression, course, and outcome of mental disorders. From their success in achieving these purposes, it is clear that the cross-cultural study of mental disorders has contributed greatly to our understanding of the role of cultural factors in mental disorder. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss some of these contributions and, in the process, to call attention to the fact that all aspects of mental disorders are inextricably linked to the sociocultural milieu in which they are generated.
Notes
Available upon request at the Alaska Medical Library, located on the second floor of UAA/APU Consortium Library. Ask for accession no. 102029.
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Depressive experience and disorder across cultures

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102027
Source
Chapter 6 of Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Volume 6 (pp. 237-289). Boston:Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Date
1980
Author
Marsella, AJ
Source
Chapter 6 of Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Volume 6 (pp. 237-289). Boston:Allyn and Bacon, Inc.
Date
1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Book/Book Chapter
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Assessment
Clinical observation
Cross-cultural studies
Cultural theories
Depression
Depressive disorders
Diagnosis
Epidemiology
Manifestation
Prevalence
Abstract
Although depression is considered to be one of mankind?s oldest known disorders, it continues to remain a source of great confusion and debate to lay people and professionals alike. Cross-cultural studies of depression hold much promise for increasing our knowledge of depression because they offer us an opportunity to validate our notions about the conception, distribution, manifestation, measurement, personality correlates, and sociocultural causes of depressive experience and disorder. Based on an extensive review of the cross-cultural literature on these topics, the following conclusions were reached: (1) Depressive experience and disorder vary considerably as a function of sociocultural factors. (2) The epidemiology of depression is not known because of limitations in research methods, but there is reason to believe that the frequency of depression is higher in Western societies. (3) The experience and manifestation of depression differ as a function of Westernization. Those cultures evidencing subjective epistemological orientations tend to avoid the psychologizing of experience and thus do not manifest psychological and existential symptomatology in depression. (4) Depression assessment methods are highly ethnocentric and need to emphasize greater attention to somatic and interpersonal processes in the diagnosis of depression in non-Western cultural settings. (5) Personality correlates of depression vary across cultures with respect to the presence or absence of guilt, self-concept discrepancy, and body image dissatisfaction. (6) Existing sociocultural theories of depression are lacking in explanatory and predictive power and require more comprehensive views of the mechanisms by which sociocultural factors influence the various parameters of depression.
Notes
UAA/APU Consortium Library, General Collection GN502.H36 vol.6
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Ethnocultural aspects of PTSD: An overview of concepts, issues, and treatments

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature102028
Source
Traumatology. 2010 Dec;16(4) 17-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Marsella, AJ
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii
Source
Traumatology. 2010 Dec;16(4) 17-26
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Cultural competence
Culture
Ethnocultural variations
Healing
Healing principles
PTSD
Traditional healers
Trauma
Abstract
The present article offers an overview discussion of ethnocultural aspects of PTSD, with special attention to major conceptual issues, clinical considerations, and therapy practices. The historical circumstances leading to the widespread acceptance of PTSD among conventional mental health professionals, and the subsequent criticisms that emerged from scholars, humanitarian workers, and ethnocultural minorities are presented as an important background to the current controversial status of the concept, especially with regard to arguments regarding the ethnocultural determinants of PTSD. The concept of culture, its definition, and its developmental socialization process, are presented as foundations for understanding the many influences cultural variables have on the perception, experience, clinical expressions, and treatment responses to trauma. A "trauma event-person ecology" model identifies the different factors that serve to shape the outcome of trauma within and across cultures. A therapy outcome equation is presented that summarizes the complex calculus of variables and considerations impacting different outcomes. The many healing principles used by different Western and traditional approaches are also identified, calling attention to the importance of fitting patient to therapist to therapy to present and past circumstances. The article concludes that in spite of what appears to be common neurological processes, correlates, and consequences in the initial response to trauma exposure, ethnocultural variables exercise major influence on perceived causes, symptom manifestations, clinical parameters (i.e., onset, course, and outcome), interventions, and societal responses.
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