In 2016, the Norwegian National Nutrition Council concluded that inadequate iodine intake is widespread in sections of the Norwegian population, and that effective measures should be undertaken immediately. This literature review aims to summarise articles published since January 2016 that describe the iodine intake in Norway.
Literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Embase. Altogether thirteen articles that reported intake of iodine from the diet or urinary iodine concentration were included.
The recent studies confirm that inadequate iodine intake is widespread among women of fertile age, pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants who are exclusively breastfed, elderly persons, vegans and immigrants. There are few sources of iodine in the diet, and persons who avoid or have a low intake of milk and white fish are particularly vulnerable.
Inadequate iodine intake is a matter of particular concern in women of fertile age. Healthcare personnel should be aware of this and in certain cases recommend iodine-rich foods or iodine supplements to these and other vulnerable groups.
Current knowledge about the relationship between mild to moderately inadequate maternal iodine intake and/or supplemental iodine on child neurodevelopment is sparse. Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored associations between maternal iodine intake and child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry and maternally-reported child ADHD symptoms at eight years of age. Pregnant women reported food and supplement intakes by questionnaire in gestational week 22. In total, 1725 children (2.2%) were diagnosed with ADHD. In non-users of supplemental iodine (53,360 mothers), we found no association between iodine intake from food and risk of child ADHD diagnosis (p = 0.89), while low iodine from food (
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 Âµg/day and 150 Âµg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 Âµg/day from food and 166 Âµg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 Âµg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 Âµg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 Âµg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 Âµg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.