Shipping activities are expected to increase in the Arctic Seas. Today, the majority of vessels are using marine diesel oil (MDO) as propulsion fuel. However, there is a general lack of knowledge of how cold-water marine species respond to acute exposures to MDO. Arctic red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschaticus) were exposed to mechanically dispersed MDO in a flow-through exposure system for one week followed by three weeks of recovery. Observations of increased movements in exposed crabs were interpreted as avoidance behaviour. Further, glutathione peroxidase activity increased in high exposed crab, the catalase activity showed an insignificant increase with exposure, while no differences between groups were observed for lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase activity. After three weeks of recovery in clean seawater, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations in the crabs were significantly reduced, with no specific biomarker responses in exposed groups compared to the control. The results suggest that effects from instantaneous MDO spill only will have short-term effects on the red king crab.
This study aimed to simulate conditions in which dispersant (Dasic NS) might be used to combat an oil spill in coastal sub-Arctic water of limited depth and water exchange in order to produce input data for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) of Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal areas. Concentration dependent differences in acute responses and long-term effects of a 48h acute exposure to dispersed oil, with and without the application of a chemical dispersant, were assessed on the Arctic filter feeding bivalve Chlamys islandica. Icelandic scallops were exposed for 48h to a range of spiked concentrations of mechanically and chemically dispersed oil. Short-term effects were assessed in terms of lysosomal membrane stability, superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthatione S-transferases, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, total oxyradical scavenging capacity, lipid peroxidation and peroxisomal proliferation. Post-exposure survival, growth and reproductive investment were followed for 2 months to evaluate any long-term consequence. Generally, similar effects were observed in scallops exposed to mechanically and chemically dispersed oil. Limited short-term effects were observed after 48h, suggesting that a different timing would be required for measuring the possible onset of such effects. There was a concentration dependent increase in cumulative post-exposure mortality, but long-term effects on gonadosomatic index, somatic growth/condition factor did not differ among treatments.
The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasj?en at Bj?rn?ya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74? 30'N, 19? 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (
Increasing anthropogenic activities in the Arctic represent an enhanced threat for oil pollution in a marine environment that is already at risk from climate warming. In particular, this applies to species with free-living pelagic larvae that aggregate in surface waters and under the sea ice where hydrocarbons are likely to remain for extended periods of time due to low temperatures. We exposed the positively buoyant eggs of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an arctic keystone species, to realistic concentrations of a crude oil water-soluble fraction (WSF), mimicking exposure of eggs aggregating under the ice to oil WSF leaking from brine channels following encapsulation in ice. Total hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels were in the ng/L range, with most exposure concentrations below the limits of detection throughout the experiment for all treatments. The proportion of viable, free-swimming larvae decreased significantly with dose and showed increases in the incidence and severity of spine curvature, yolk sac alterations and a reduction in spine length. These effects are expected to compromise the motility, feeding capacity, and predator avoidance during critical early life stages for this important species. Our results imply that the viability and fitness of polar cod early life stages is significantly reduced when exposed to extremely low and environmentally realistic levels of aqueous hydrocarbons, which may have important implications for arctic food web dynamics and ecosystem functioning.
Increasing human activities in the Arctic raise the risk of petroleum pollution, thus posing an elevated risk for Arctic organisms to be chronically exposed to petroleum compounds. The endocrine disrupting properties of some of these compounds (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) present in crude oil may have negative effects on the long and energy intensive reproductive development of polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an Arctic keystone species. In the present study, selected reproductive parameters were examined in feral polar cod exposed to crude oil via a natural diet (0.11, 0.57 and 1.14µg crude oil/g fish/day [corresponding to low, medium and high treatments, respectively]) for 31 weeks prior to spawning. Fish maturing in the current reproductive period made up 92% of the experimental population while 5% were immature and 3% were identified as resting fish. Phase I metabolism of PAHs, indicated by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, showed a dose-dependent increase in high and medium crude oil treatments at week 6 and 22, respectively. Decreasing EROD activity and increasing PAH bile metabolite concentrations over the experimental period may be explained by reproductive maturity stage. Significant alterations in sperm motility were observed in crude oil exposed males compared to the controls. The investigated somatic indices (gonad and hepatic), germ cell development and plasma steroid levels (estradiol-17ß [females], testosterone [males and females] and 11-ketotestosterone [males]) were not significantly altered by chronic dietary exposure to crude oil. The environmentally realistic doses polar cod were chronically exposed to in this study were likely not high enough to induce adverse effects in this ecologically important fish species. This study elucidated many baseline aspects of polar cod reproductive physiology and emphasized the influence of maturation state on biomarkers of PAH biotransformation (EROD and PAH bile metabolites).
Petroleum-related activities in the Arctic have raised concerns about the adverse effects of potential oil spill on the environment and living organisms. Polar cod plays a key role in the Arctic marine ecosystem and is an important species for monitoring oil pollution in this region. We examined potential interactions of oil pollution and global warming by analysing liver transcriptome changes in polar cod exposed to crude oil at elevated temperature. Adult males and females were kept at high (11?C) or normal (4?C) temperature for 5 days before exposure to mechanically dispersed crude oil for 2 days followed by recovery in clean sea water for 11 days at the two temperatures. Genome-wide microarray analysis of liver samples revealed numerous differentially expressed genes induced by uptake of oil as confirmed by increased levels of bile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites. The hepatic response included genes playing important roles in xenobiotic detoxification and closely related biochemical processes, but also of importance for protein stress response, cell repair and immunity. Though magnitude of transcriptome responses was similar at both temperatures, the upregulated expression of cyp1a1 and several chaperone genes was much stronger at 11?C. Most gene expression changes returned to basal levels after recovery. The microarray results were validated by qPCR measurement of eleven selected genes representing both known and novel biomarkers to assess exposure to anthropogenic threats on polar cod. Strong upregulation of the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor 7 is proposed to protect the liver of polar fish with aglomerular kidneys from the toxic effect of accumulated biliary compounds. The highly altered liver transcriptome patterns after acute oil exposure and recovery suggests rapid responses in polar cod to oil pollutants and the ability to cope with toxicity in relatively short time.
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, Box 358, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Biosciences, The Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Postboks 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Due to a northward shift in off-shore activities, including increased shipping traffic and oil and gas exploration there is a growing focus on the potential effects of oil pollution on Arctic marine ecosystems. Capelin (Mallotus villosus) is a small fish and a member of the smelt family, and is a key species in the marine food chain. Capelin are seasonally abundant in the Northern Atlantic and in coastal Arctic waters, e.g. in western Greenland and in the Barents Sea, where it undertakes aggregated spawning in the intertidal and subtidal zone. To study the possible effects of oil pollution on the physiology and development of early life stages in capelin, freshly fertilised capelin eggs were exposed to a water accommodated fraction of physically (WAF) and chemically (CEWAF) dispersed heavy fuel oil (IFO30) for 72?h. Subsequent mortality, hatching success, larvae malformations, growth and CYP1A/EROD activity was measured over a 4-week period. The nominal exposure concentrations of WAF and CEWAF were between 0.02 and 14.5?mg total hydrocarbon content (THC) L-1 and 0.5-304?mg THC L-1, respectively. Egg mortality correlated significantly with WAF exposure concentration. The proportions of hatched eggs decreased with increasing CEWAF exposure concentration. Further, the percentage of malformed larvae with craniofacial abnormalities, body axis defects, generally under developed larvae, reduced total body length (dwarfs), correlated significantly with exposure concentrations in both CEWAF and WAF treatments. The four types of the predominant malformations were distributed differently in two parallel experiments. At the biochemical level, we observed a significant relationship between CEWAF exposure concentration and CYP1A/EROD activity in newly hatched larvae and this effect persisted for 3 weeks after the 72?h exposure. We conclude that even short-term exposure to both heavy fuel oil WAF and CEWAF, at environmentally relevant THC concentrations following an oil spill, may induce adverse developmental effects on the vulnerable early life stages of capelin. The mechanisms responsible for the observed effects on mortality, growth and embryo development in capelin eggs and embryos following WAF and CEWAF exposure require further studies.
The increasing human presence in the Arctic shelf seas, with the expansion of oil and gas industries and maritime shipping, poses a risk for Arctic marine organisms such as the key species polar cod (Boreogadus saida). The impact of dietary crude oil on growth and metabolism of polar cod was investigated in the early spring (March-April) when individuals are expected to be in a vulnerable physiological state with poor energy stores. Adult polar cod were exposed dietarily to three doses of Kobbe crude oil during an eight weeks period and followed by two weeks of depuration. Significant dose-responses in exposure biomarkers (hepatic ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase [EROD] activity and 1-OH phenanthrene metabolites in bile) indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were bioavailable. Condition indices (i.e. Fulton's condition factor, hepatosomatic index), growth, whole body respiration, and total lipid content in the liver were monitored over the course of the experiment. The majority of females were immature, while a few had spawned during the season and showed low hepatic lipid content during the experiment. In contrast, males were all, except for one immature individual, in a post-spawning stage and had larger hepatic energy stores than females. Most specimens, independent of sex, showed a loss in weight, that was exacerbated by exposure to crude oil and low hepatic liver lipids. Furthermore, females exposed to crude oil showed a significant elevation of oxygen consumption compared to controls, although not dose-dependent. This study highlights the importance of the energy status of individuals for their response to a crude oil exposure.
Repparfjorden in northern Norway has been partly designated for submarine mine tailings disposal when the adjacent Cu mine re-opens in 2019. In order to increase sedimentation, the flocculant, Magnafloc10 is planned to be added to the mine tailings prior to discharge into the fjord. This study investigated the feasibility of reducing the Cu concentrations (375?mg/kg) in the mine tailings by applying electrodialytic extraction, including potential optimisation by adding Magnafloc10. In the acidic electrodialytic treatment (pH??12), Magnafloc10 reduced the extraction of Cu from 17% to 0.7%, due to the flocs remaining in the tailing slurries. The electric energy consumption per extracted Cu was similar in the acidic and alkaline electrodialytic treatments without the addition of Magnafloc10. In the alkaline electrodialytic treatment, the extraction of other metals was low (