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Climate change alters the structure of arctic marine food webs due to poleward shifts of boreal generalists.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265854
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2015 Sep 7;282(1814)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-7-2015
Author
Susanne Kortsch
Raul Primicerio
Maria Fossheim
Andrey V Dolgov
Michaela Aschan
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2015 Sep 7;282(1814)
Date
Sep-7-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate-driven poleward shifts, leading to changes in species composition and relative abundances, have been recently documented in the Arctic. Among the fastest moving species are boreal generalist fish which are expected to affect arctic marine food web structure and ecosystem functioning substantially. Here, we address structural changes at the food web level induced by poleward shifts via topological network analysis of highly resolved boreal and arctic food webs of the Barents Sea. We detected considerable differences in structural properties and link configuration between the boreal and the arctic food webs, the latter being more modular and less connected. We found that a main characteristic of the boreal fish moving poleward into the arctic region of the Barents Sea is high generalism, a property that increases connectance and reduces modularity in the arctic marine food web. Our results reveal that habitats form natural boundaries for food web modules, and that generalists play an important functional role in coupling pelagic and benthic modules. We posit that these habitat couplers have the potential to promote the transfer of energy and matter between habitats, but also the spread of pertubations, thereby changing arctic marine food web structure considerably with implications for ecosystem dynamics and functioning.
PubMed ID
26336179 View in PubMed
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Climate-driven changes in functional biogeography of Arctic marine fish communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286820
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Oct 31;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-31-2017
Author
André Frainer
Raul Primicerio
Susanne Kortsch
Magnus Aune
Andrey V Dolgov
Maria Fossheim
Michaela M Aschan
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Oct 31;
Date
Oct-31-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Climate change triggers poleward shifts in species distribution leading to changes in biogeography. In the marine environment, fish respond quickly to warming, causing community-wide reorganizations, which result in profound changes in ecosystem functioning. Functional biogeography provides a framework to address how ecosystem functioning may be affected by climate change over large spatial scales. However, there are few studies on functional biogeography in the marine environment, and none in the Arctic, where climate-driven changes are most rapid and extensive. We investigated the impact of climate warming on the functional biogeography of the Barents Sea, which is characterized by a sharp zoogeographic divide separating boreal from Arctic species. Our unique dataset covered 52 fish species, 15 functional traits, and 3,660 stations sampled during the recent warming period. We found that the functional traits characterizing Arctic fish communities, mainly composed of small-sized bottom-dwelling benthivores, are being rapidly replaced by traits of incoming boreal species, particularly the larger, longer lived, and more piscivorous species. The changes in functional traits detected in the Arctic can be predicted based on the characteristics of species expected to undergo quick poleward shifts in response to warming. These are the large, generalist, motile species, such as cod and haddock. We show how functional biogeography can provide important insights into the relationship between species composition, diversity, ecosystem functioning, and environmental drivers. This represents invaluable knowledge in a period when communities and ecosystems experience rapid climate-driven changes across biogeographical regions.
PubMed ID
29087943 View in PubMed
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Climate-driven changes in functional biogeography of Arctic marine fish communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature292472
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 11 14; 114(46):12202-12207
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
11-14-2017
Author
André Frainer
Raul Primicerio
Susanne Kortsch
Magnus Aune
Andrey V Dolgov
Maria Fossheim
Michaela M Aschan
Author Affiliation
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway; andre.frainer@uit.no.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 11 14; 114(46):12202-12207
Date
11-14-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adaptation, Biological
Animal Distribution
Animals
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Ecosystem
Fishes - physiology
Models, Statistical
Temperature
Abstract
Climate change triggers poleward shifts in species distribution leading to changes in biogeography. In the marine environment, fish respond quickly to warming, causing community-wide reorganizations, which result in profound changes in ecosystem functioning. Functional biogeography provides a framework to address how ecosystem functioning may be affected by climate change over large spatial scales. However, there are few studies on functional biogeography in the marine environment, and none in the Arctic, where climate-driven changes are most rapid and extensive. We investigated the impact of climate warming on the functional biogeography of the Barents Sea, which is characterized by a sharp zoogeographic divide separating boreal from Arctic species. Our unique dataset covered 52 fish species, 15 functional traits, and 3,660 stations sampled during the recent warming period. We found that the functional traits characterizing Arctic fish communities, mainly composed of small-sized bottom-dwelling benthivores, are being rapidly replaced by traits of incoming boreal species, particularly the larger, longer lived, and more piscivorous species. The changes in functional traits detected in the Arctic can be predicted based on the characteristics of species expected to undergo quick poleward shifts in response to warming. These are the large, generalist, motile species, such as cod and haddock. We show how functional biogeography can provide important insights into the relationship between species composition, diversity, ecosystem functioning, and environmental drivers. This represents invaluable knowledge in a period when communities and ecosystems experience rapid climate-driven changes across biogeographical regions.
Notes
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CommentIn: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Nov 14;114(46):12100-12102 PMID 29093162
PubMed ID
29087943 View in PubMed
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Functional roles and redundancy of demersal Barents Sea fish: Ecological implications of environmental change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299463
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
2018
Author
Magnus Aune
Michaela M Aschan
Michael Greenacre
Andrey V Dolgov
Maria Fossheim
Raul Primicerio
Author Affiliation
Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207451
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Climate change
Ecology
Ecosystem
Fishes
Ice Cover
Abstract
When facing environmental change and intensified anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems, extensive knowledge of how these systems are functioning is required in order to manage them properly. However, in high-latitude ecosystems, where climate change is expected to have substantial ecological impact, the ecosystem functions of biological species have received little attention, partly due to the limited biological knowledge of Arctic species. Functional traits address the ecosystem functions of member species, allowing the functionality of communities to be characterised and the degree of functional redundancy to be assessed. Ecosystems with higher functional redundancy are expected to be less affected by species loss, and therefore less sensitive to disturbance. Here we highlight and compare typical functional characteristics of Arctic and boreal fish in the Barents Sea and address the consequences of a community-wide reorganization driven by climate warming on functional redundancy and characterization. Based on trait and fish community composition data, we assessed functional redundancy of the Barents Sea fish community for the period 2004-2012, a period during which this northern region was characterized by rapidly warming water masses and declining sea ice coverage. We identified six functional groups, with distinct spatial distributions, that collectively provide a functional characterization of Barents Sea fish. The functional groups displayed different prevalence in boreal and Arctic water masses. Some functional groups displayed a spatial expansion towards the northeast during the study period, whereas other groups showed a general decline in functional redundancy. Presently, the observed patterns of functional redundancy would seem to provide sufficient scope for buffering against local loss in functional diversity only for the more speciose functional groups. Furthermore, the observed functional reconfiguration may affect future ecosystem functioning in the area. In a period of rapid environmental change, monitoring programs integrating functional traits will help inform management on ecosystem functioning and vulnerability.
PubMed ID
30462696 View in PubMed
Less detail

Functional roles and redundancy of demersal Barents Sea fish: Ecological implications of environmental change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296040
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207451
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
2018
Author
Magnus Aune
Michaela M Aschan
Michael Greenacre
Andrey V Dolgov
Maria Fossheim
Raul Primicerio
Author Affiliation
Akvaplan-niva AS, The Fram Centre, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
PLoS One. 2018; 13(11):e0207451
Date
2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
When facing environmental change and intensified anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems, extensive knowledge of how these systems are functioning is required in order to manage them properly. However, in high-latitude ecosystems, where climate change is expected to have substantial ecological impact, the ecosystem functions of biological species have received little attention, partly due to the limited biological knowledge of Arctic species. Functional traits address the ecosystem functions of member species, allowing the functionality of communities to be characterised and the degree of functional redundancy to be assessed. Ecosystems with higher functional redundancy are expected to be less affected by species loss, and therefore less sensitive to disturbance. Here we highlight and compare typical functional characteristics of Arctic and boreal fish in the Barents Sea and address the consequences of a community-wide reorganization driven by climate warming on functional redundancy and characterization. Based on trait and fish community composition data, we assessed functional redundancy of the Barents Sea fish community for the period 2004-2012, a period during which this northern region was characterized by rapidly warming water masses and declining sea ice coverage. We identified six functional groups, with distinct spatial distributions, that collectively provide a functional characterization of Barents Sea fish. The functional groups displayed different prevalence in boreal and Arctic water masses. Some functional groups displayed a spatial expansion towards the northeast during the study period, whereas other groups showed a general decline in functional redundancy. Presently, the observed patterns of functional redundancy would seem to provide sufficient scope for buffering against local loss in functional diversity only for the more speciose functional groups. Furthermore, the observed functional reconfiguration may affect future ecosystem functioning in the area. In a period of rapid environmental change, monitoring programs integrating functional traits will help inform management on ecosystem functioning and vulnerability.
PubMed ID
30462696 View in PubMed
Less detail

Increased functional diversity warns of ecological transition in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature311329
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2021 Apr 14; 288(1948):20210054
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-14-2021
Author
André Frainer
Raul Primicerio
Andrey Dolgov
Maria Fossheim
Edda Johannesen
Sigrid Lind
Michaela Aschan
Author Affiliation
Norwegian College of Fishery Science, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Proc Biol Sci. 2021 Apr 14; 288(1948):20210054
Date
Apr-14-2021
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
As temperatures rise, motile species start to redistribute to more suitable areas, potentially affecting the persistence of several resident species and altering biodiversity and ecosystem functions. In the Barents Sea, a hotspot for global warming, marine fish from boreal regions have been increasingly found in the more exclusive Arctic region. Here, we show that this shift in species distribution is increasing species richness and evenness, and even more so, the functional diversity of the Arctic. Higher diversity is often interpreted as being positive for ecosystem health and is a target for conservation. However, the increasing trend observed here may be transitory as the traits involved threaten Arctic species via predation and competition. If the pressure from global warming continues to rise, the ensuing loss of Arctic species will result in a reduction in functional diversity.
PubMed ID
33823664 View in PubMed
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6 records – page 1 of 1.