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Association between fish consumption, dietary omega-3 fatty acids and persistent organic pollutants intake, and type 2 diabetes in 18 First Nations in Ontario, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282399
Source
Environ Res. 2017 May 05;156:725-737
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-05-2017
Author
Lesya Marushka
Malek Batal
William David
Harold Schwartz
Amy Ing
Karen Fediuk
Donald Sharp
Andrew Black
Constantine Tikhonov
Hing Man Chan
Source
Environ Res. 2017 May 05;156:725-737
Date
May-05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
First Nations (FNs) populations in Canada experience a disproportionally higher rate of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population. Recent data suggest that a high consumption of fish may help prevent T2D. On the other hand, fish might also be a potential source of environmental contaminants which could potentially be a risk factor for T2D.
To investigate the potential associations between self-reported T2D and consumption of locally-harvested fish, dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FAs) and persistent organic pollutants intake among adult FNs living on reserve in Ontario.
Data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, which included a cross-sectional study of 1429 Ontario FNs adults living in 18 communities across 4 ecozones in 2012 were analyzed. Social and lifestyle data were collected using household interviews. The consumption of locally-harvested fish was estimated using a traditional food frequency questionnaire along with portion size information obtained from 24hr recalls. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of contaminants including dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dietary intakes of DDE and PCBs were estimated using community-specific levels of DDE/PCBs in fish species. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for potential covariates including age, gender, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, smoking, and education were developed.
The prevalence of T2D in Ontario FNs was 24.4%. A significant positive association between fish consumption of one portion per week and more and T2D compared to no fish consumption was found (OR=2.5 (95% CI: 1.38-4.58). Dietary DDE and PCBs intake was positively associated with T2D (OR=1.09 (95%CI: 1.05-1.75) for DDE and OR=1.07 (95%CI: 1.004-1.27) for PCBs) per unit increase in DDE/PCBs while n-3-FAs intake, adjusted for DDE/PCBs intake, showed an inverse effect against T2D among older individuals (OR=0.86 (95% CI: 0.46-0.99).
Our results support previous findings that exposure to DDE and PCBs may increase the risk of T2D. Elevated levels of contaminants in fish may counteract with potentially beneficial effects of n-3FAs from fish consumption. However, the overall health benefits of high consumption of fish with a high n-3 FAs content may outweigh the adverse effect of contaminants.
PubMed ID
28482294 View in PubMed
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Comparison of dietary intake between Francophones and Anglophones in Canada: data from CCHS 2.2.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105860
Source
Can J Public Health. 2013;104(6 Suppl 1):S31-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Malek Batal
Ewa Makvandi
Pascal Imbeault
Isabelle Gagnon-Arpin
Jean Grenier
Marie-Hélène Chomienne
Louise Bouchard
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa Réseau de recherche appliquée sur la santé des francophones de l'Ontario (RRASFO). malek.batal@uottawa.ca.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2013;104(6 Suppl 1):S31-8
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Canada
Choice Behavior
Diet - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Energy intake
Female
Health Status Disparities
Health Surveys
Humans
Language
Male
Middle Aged
Minority Groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Nutritional Status
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
To compare the dietary intake and food choices between Francophone Canadians in a state of linguistic minority (outside of Quebec) and the English-speaking majority.
We used the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 2.2 (general health and 24-hour dietary recalls) to describe dietary intake of Francophone Canadians (excluding Quebec) and compare them to the English-speaking majority. The linguistic variable was determined by languages spoken at home, first language learned and still understood, language of interview, and language of preference. The mean differences in daily nutrient and food intake were assessed by t and chi-square tests.
Differences in total energy and daily food intakes by language groups were not observed in the sample; however, significant differences in weekly consumption were found in different age and sex categories: lower fruits and vegetables consumption, and vitamins and macronutrients intakes for older Francophone men and higher intakes of energy and saturated fat from "unhealthy" foods for Francophone men 19-30 years of age. Based on the Acceptable Macronutrients Distribution Range (AMDR), approximately 50% of the sample exceeded their acceptable energy intake from saturated fats, and 80% were below their required intake of linoleic fatty acid.
We confirmed that belonging to Francophone minorities in Canada affects food choices and nutritional well-being of this population. The most vulnerable groups identified by our study were Francophone men in the youngest (19-30) and older (50 and over) age categories. The extent to which the cultural setting influences the diet and, in turn, the health of the minority population needs further examination.
PubMed ID
24300318 View in PubMed
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Diet quality indices in relation to metabolic syndrome in an Indigenous Cree (Eeyouch) population in northern Québec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature283930
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jul 07;:1-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-07-2017
Author
Mathilde Lavigne-Robichaud
Jean-Claude Moubarac
Stéfanie Lantagne-Lopez
Louise Johnson-Down
Malek Batal
Elhadji A Laouan Sidi
Michel Lucas
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jul 07;:1-9
Date
Jul-07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To assess associations between three diet quality indices and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec, Canada, as well as to evaluate their pertinence in this Indigenous context.
The alternative-Healthy Eating Index 2010 (aHEI-2010), the Food Quality Score (FQS) and the contribution of ultra-processed products (UPP) to total daily dietary energy intake using the NOVA classification were calculated from 24 h food recalls. MetS was determined with the latest harmonized definition. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between quintiles of dietary quality scores with MetS and its components.
Study sample from the 2005-2009 cross-sectional Nituuchischaayihititaau Aschii Environment-and-Health Study.
Eeyouch (n 811) from seven James Bay communities (=18 years old).
MetS prevalence was 56·6 % with 95·4 % abdominal adiposity, 50·1 % elevated fasting plasma glucose, 43·4 % hypertension, 38·6 % elevated TAG and 44·5 % reduced HDL cholesterol. Comparing highest and lowest quintiles of scores, adjusted OR (95 % CI) of MetS was 0·70 (0·39, 1·08; P-trend=0·05) for aHEI-2010, 1·06 (0·63, 1·76; P-trend=0·87) for FQS and 1·90 (1·14, 3·17; P-trend=0·04) for the contribution of UPP to total daily dietary energy intake.
Although diet quality indices have been associated with cardiometabolic risk, only the dietary intake of UPP was significantly associated with MetS in the Eeyouch. Indices tailored to the food environment of northern communities are essential to further understand the impact of diet quality in this context.
PubMed ID
28683844 View in PubMed
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Diet quality indices in relation to metabolic syndrome in an Indigenous Cree (Eeyouch) population in northern Québec, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294585
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 Jan; 21(1):172-180
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jan-2018
Author
Mathilde Lavigne-Robichaud
Jean-Claude Moubarac
Stéfanie Lantagne-Lopez
Louise Johnson-Down
Malek Batal
Elhadji A Laouan Sidi
Michel Lucas
Author Affiliation
1Department of Social & Preventive Medicine,Laval University,Québec,QC,Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2018 Jan; 21(1):172-180
Date
Jan-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cholesterol - blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet - ethnology
Female
Food Quality
Humans
Indians, North American
Male
Mental Recall
Metabolic Syndrome - blood - ethnology
Nutrition Assessment
Obesity - blood - ethnology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Triglycerides - blood
Waist Circumference
Abstract
To assess associations between three diet quality indices and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Cree (Eeyouch) of northern Québec, Canada, as well as to evaluate their pertinence in this Indigenous context.
The alternative-Healthy Eating Index 2010 (aHEI-2010), the Food Quality Score (FQS) and the contribution of ultra-processed products (UPP) to total daily dietary energy intake using the NOVA classification were calculated from 24 h food recalls. MetS was determined with the latest harmonized definition. Logistic regressions assessed the relationship between quintiles of dietary quality scores with MetS and its components.
Study sample from the 2005-2009 cross-sectional Nituuchischaayihititaau Aschii Environment-and-Health Study.
Eeyouch (n 811) from seven James Bay communities (=18 years old).
MetS prevalence was 56·6 % with 95·4 % abdominal adiposity, 50·1 % elevated fasting plasma glucose, 43·4 % hypertension, 38·6 % elevated TAG and 44·5 % reduced HDL cholesterol. Comparing highest and lowest quintiles of scores, adjusted OR (95 % CI) of MetS was 0·70 (0·39, 1·08; P-trend=0·05) for aHEI-2010, 1·06 (0·63, 1·76; P-trend=0·87) for FQS and 1·90 (1·14, 3·17; P-trend=0·04) for the contribution of UPP to total daily dietary energy intake.
Although diet quality indices have been associated with cardiometabolic risk, only the dietary intake of UPP was significantly associated with MetS in the Eeyouch. Indices tailored to the food environment of northern communities are essential to further understand the impact of diet quality in this context.
PubMed ID
28683844 View in PubMed
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Estimation of traditional food intake in indigenous communities in Denendeh and the Yukon.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature61496
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):46-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2005
Author
Malek Batal
Katherine Gray-Donald
Harriet V Kuhnlein
Olivier Receveur
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, American University of Beirut, Lebanon. malek.batal@aub.edu.lb
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2005 Feb;64(1):46-54
Date
Feb-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Energy Metabolism
Female
Food Habits - ethnology
Humans
Male
Meat
Multicenter Studies
Northwest Territories
Nutrition Surveys
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritional Status
Population Groups
Questionnaires
Residence Characteristics
Seafood
Vegetables
Yukon Territory
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Chronic non-communicable diseases related to excessive or unbalanced dietary intakes are on the rise among some Indigenous populations in Canada. Nutritional problems of Indigenous peoples arise in the transition from a traditional diet to a market diet characterized by highly processed foods with reduced nutrient density. This study aimed at assessing traditional food intake of Indigenous people in 18 communities. STUDY DESIGN: This study was cross-sectional with a sample size of 1,356. METHODS: This study used food frequency and 24-hour recall questionnaires to quantify traditional food intake in 18 communities in the McKenzie basin of the Northwest Territories (Denendeh and the Yukon). RESULTS: Typical daily intakes of groups of traditional food items were generated and intake of an extensive list of traditional food detailed for adult men and women. Per capita intake of traditional food items was also calculated. CONCLUSION: Reliance on traditional food intake is still high in Denendeh, as well as in the Yukon. The detailed description of the traditional food system presented here allows an accurate identification of the contribution of traditional food items to nutrient and contaminant intake by Indigenous people for future studies.
PubMed ID
15776992 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the intake of traditional foods in the Eeyou Istchee (Cree) of northern Quebec include age, speaking the Cree language and food sovereignty indicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299315
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Willows Noreen
Louise Johnson-Down
Moubarac Jean-Claude
Michel Lucas
Elizabeth Robinson
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
a Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Arctic Regions
Blood glucose
Blood pressure
Body Weights and Measures
Diet - ethnology
Female
Food Supply - methods
Health Behavior
Humans
Indians, North American
Language
Lipids - blood
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Public Assistance - statistics & numerical data
Quebec
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and 330 men who participated in the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment-and-Health (E&H) study. The relationship between TF consumption and dietary, health, sociodemographic and food sovereignty (i.e. being a hunter or receiving Income Security to hunt, trap or fish) variables was examined using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by sex because of the male/female discrepancy in being a hunter. Among respondents, almost all (99.7%) consumed TF, 51% were hunters and 10% received Income Security. Higher intake of TF was associated with lower consumption of less nutritious ultra-processed products (UPP). In women, TF intake increased with age, hunting and receiving Income Security, but decreased with high school education. In men, TF intake increased with age and speaking only Cree at home. The findings suggest that increased food sovereignty would result in improved diet quality among Eeyouch through increased TF intake and decreased UPP intake.
PubMed ID
30360700 View in PubMed
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Factors associated with the intake of traditional foods in the Eeyou Istchee (Cree) of northern Quebec include age, speaking the Cree language and food sovereignty indicators.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature295550
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
12-2018
Author
Willows Noreen
Louise Johnson-Down
Moubarac Jean-Claude
Michel Lucas
Elizabeth Robinson
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
a Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , University of Alberta , Edmonton , AB , Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2018 12; 77(1):1536251
Date
12-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The Eeyouch are a First Nations (Cree) population that live above 49.6°N latitude in Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec. Eeyouch rely on traditional foods (TF) hunted, fished or gathered from the land. The overarching aim of this study was to achieve an understanding of the factors associated with TF intake among Eeyouch. Data were from 465 women and 330 men who participated in the Nituuchischaayihtitaau Aschii Multi-Community Environment-and-Health (E&H) study. The relationship between TF consumption and dietary, health, sociodemographic and food sovereignty (i.e. being a hunter or receiving Income Security to hunt, trap or fish) variables was examined using linear and logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by sex because of the male/female discrepancy in being a hunter. Among respondents, almost all (99.7%) consumed TF, 51% were hunters and 10% received Income Security. Higher intake of TF was associated with lower consumption of less nutritious ultra-processed products (UPP). In women, TF intake increased with age, hunting and receiving Income Security, but decreased with high school education. In men, TF intake increased with age and speaking only Cree at home. The findings suggest that increased food sovereignty would result in improved diet quality among Eeyouch through increased TF intake and decreased UPP intake.
Notes
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PubMed ID
30360700 View in PubMed
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Food expenditure patterns in the Canadian Arctic show cause for concern for obesity and chronic disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature256764
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:51
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Mohammadreza Pakseresht
Rosalyn Lang
Stacey Rittmueller
Cindy Roache
Tony Sheehy
Malek Batal
Andre Corriveau
Sangita Sharma
Author Affiliation
Aboriginal and Global Health Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, 5-10 University Terrace, Edmonton, AB T6G 2 T4, Canada. gita.sharma@ualberta.ca.
Source
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11:51
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cereals - economics
Chronic Disease
Diet - economics
Energy intake
Family Characteristics
Female
Food - economics
Food Habits
Fruit - economics
Humans
Male
Meat - economics
Middle Aged
Northwest Territories
Nunavut
Nutritional Status
Obesity - economics
Vegetables - economics
Abstract
Little is understood about the economic factors that have influenced the nutrition transition from traditional to store-bought foods that are typically high in fat and sugar amongst people living in the Canadian Arctic. This study aims to determine the pattern of household food expenditure in the Canadian Arctic.
Local food prices were collected over 12 months in six communities in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Dietary intake data were collected from 441 adults using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Money spent on six food groups was calculated along with the cost of energy and selected nutrients per person.
Participants spent approximately 10% of total food expenditure on each of the food groups of fruit/vegetables, grains and potatoes, and dairy, 17% on traditional meats (e.g. caribou, goose, char, and seal liver), and 20% on non-traditional meats (e.g. beef, pork, chicken, fish, and processed meats). Non-nutrient-dense foods (NNDF) accounted for 34% of food expenditure. Younger participants (
Notes
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PubMed ID
24739761 View in PubMed
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Modelling optimal diets for quality and cost: examples from Inuit and First Nations communities in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296772
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Dec 19; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-19-2018
Author
Noreen Willows
Louise Johnson-Down
Tiff-Annie Kenny
Hing Man Chan
Malek Batal
Author Affiliation
University of Alberta , Dept of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science , Edmonton, Alberta, Canada , T6G 2P5 ; noreen.willows@ualberta.ca.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2018 Dec 19; :
Date
Dec-19-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
This review summarizes aspects of the 2017 Canadian Nutrition Society symposium, "Modelling diets for quality and cost: examples from Inuit and First Nations in Canada". Indigenous peoples in Canada experience a high prevalence of nutrition-related chronic disease due to the poor quality and high cost of their food supply. Since European colonisation, they have transitioned from a diet of minimally processed traditional foods (game, fish and plants) procured using pursuits such as hunting, fishing, gathering, and horticulture to a diet comprised mostly of processed market foods. This nutrition transition is the result of factors such as colonial policies and practices; climate change; environmental degradation; contaminants in traditional foods; and limited availability of, or access to, economical and healthful market foods. Presenters Malek Batal and Laurie Chan characterized the contemporary diets of First Nations and Inuit populations and demonstrated novel methods for modelling more optimal diets using two datasets: the First Nations Food, Nutrition and Environment Study and the Inuit Health Survey. It was demonstrated how the NOVA classification characterized the portion of the diet consisting of processed foods. Dietary components were then manipulated to reduce ultra-processed food and drink intake to increase the Healthy Eating Index score. Linear programming was explained as a way to mathematically design theoretical diets that aim to optimize food cost, nutrition quality, and contaminant level of traditional foods. While diet-modelling methodologies have limitations, they provide a basis for engaging Indigenous peoples and governments to develop nutrition goals and policies anchored in contemporary food realities.
PubMed ID
30566364 View in PubMed
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Physical inactivity among Francophones and Anglophones in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105862
Source
Can J Public Health. 2013;104(6 Suppl 1):S26-30
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Pascal Imbeault
Ewa Makvandi
Malek Batal
Isabelle Gagnon-Arpin
Jean Grenier
Marie-Hélène Chomienne
Louise Bouchard
Author Affiliation
University of Ottawa. imbeault@uottawa.ca.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2013;104(6 Suppl 1):S26-30
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Child
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Language
Leisure Activities - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Minority Groups - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Motor Activity
Qualitative Research
Social Determinants of Health
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Leisure-time physical activity participation is influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Recent evidence suggests that being part of a minority negatively impacts an individual's health status. The objective of this study was to compare inactive leisure-time physical activity between the Francophone minority and the Anglophone majority in Canada.
Data from the fusion of cycles 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 2008 and 2009 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used. The linguistic variable was determined by languages spoken at home, first language learned and still understood, language of interview, and language of preference. Leisure-time physical activity was based on a questionnaire provided during the interview. Factors associated with inactive leisure time were examined using logistic regression models.
Francophones were more likely than Anglophones to be physically inactive in their leisure time (49.1% vs. 47.2%). A greater percentage of Francophones had poor self-perceived health, were older, were single, had lower education, had higher rate of unemployment and lived in rural areas compared to Anglophones. When these socio-demographic factors were taken into account, there were no further differences in the likelihood of being inactive between Francophones and Anglophones.
The Francophone minority in Canada is characterized by socio-demographic factors that have a negative impact on leisure-time physical activity participation.
PubMed ID
24300316 View in PubMed
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21 records – page 1 of 3.