The goal was to examine the relationship between age at the introduction of solid foods during the first year of life and allergic sensitization in 5-year-old children.
We analyzed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention nutrition study, a prospective, birth cohort study. We studied 994 children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus for whom information on breastfeeding, age at the introduction of solid foods, and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels at 5 years was available. The association between age at the introduction of solid foods and allergic sensitization was analyzed by using logistic regression.
The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 1.8 months (range: 0-10 months). After adjustment for potential confounders, late introduction of potatoes (>4 months), oats (>5 months), rye (>7 months), wheat (>6 months), meat (>5.5 months), fish (>8.2 months), and eggs (>10.5 months) was significantly directly associated with sensitization to food allergens. Late introduction of potatoes, rye, meat, and fish was significantly associated with sensitization to any inhalant allergen. In models that included all solid foods that were significantly related to the end points, eggs, oats, and wheat remained the most important foods related to sensitization to food allergens, whereas potatoes and fish were the most important foods associated with inhalant allergic sensitization. We found no evidence of reverse causality, taking into account parental allergic rhinitis and asthma.
Late introduction of solid foods was associated with increased risk of allergic sensitization to food and inhalant allergens.
Alcohol consumption is a significant cause of disease, death and social harm, and it clusters with smoking tobacco and an unhealthy diet. Using automatically registered retail data for research purposes is a novel approach, which is not subject to underreporting bias. Based on loyalty card data (LoCard) obtained by a major Finnish retailer holding a market share of 47%, we examined alcohol expenditure and their associations with food and tobacco expenditures.
The data consisted of 1,527,217 shopping events in 2016 among 13,274 loyalty card holders from southern Finland. A K-means cluster analysis was applied to group the shopping baskets according to their content of alcoholic beverages. The differences in the absolute and relative means of food and tobacco between the clusters were tested by linear mixed models with the loyalty card holder as the random factor.
By far, the most common basket type contained no alcoholic beverages, followed by baskets containing a small number of beers or ciders. The expenditure on food increased along with the expenditure on alcoholic beverages. The foods most consistently associated with alcohol purchases were sausages, soft drinks and snacks. The expenditure on cigarettes relative to total basket price peaked in the mid-price alcohol baskets.
Clustering of unhealthy choices occurred on the level of individual shopping events. People who bought many alcoholic beverages did not trim their food budget. Automatically registered purchase data provide valuable insight into the health behaviours of individuals and the population.
To assess milk feeding on the maternity ward and during infancy, and their relationship to sociodemographic determinants. The validity of our 3-month questionnaire in measuring hospital feeding was assessed.
A prospective Finnish birth cohort with increased risk to type 1 diabetes recruited between 1996 and 2004. The families completed a follow-up form on the age at introduction of new foods and age-specific dietary questionnaires.
Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) project, Finland.
A cohort of 5993 children (77 % of those invited) participated in the main study, and 117 randomly selected infants in the validation study.
Breast milk was the predominant milk on the maternity ward given to 99 % of the infants. Altogether, 80 % of the women recalled their child being fed supplementary milk (donated breast milk or infant formula) on the maternity ward. The median duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 1.4 months (range 0-8) and that of total breast-feeding 7.0 months (0-25). Additional milk feeding on the maternity ward, short parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, small gestational age and having no siblings were associated with a risk of short duration of both exclusive and total breast-feeding. In the validation study, 78 % of the milk types given on the maternity ward fell into the same category, according to the questionnaire and hospital records.
The recommendations for infant feeding were not achieved. Infant feeding is strongly influenced by sociodemographic determinants and feeding practices on the maternity wards. Long-term breast-feeding may be supported by active promotion on the maternity ward.
Increased vitamin D fortification of dairy products has increased the supply of vitamin D-containing products with different vitamin D contents on the market in Finland. The authors developed a ninety-eight-item FFQ with eight food groups and with a question on supplementation to assess dietary and supplemental vitamin D and Ca intakes in Finnish women (60ºN). The FFQ was validated in subgroups with different habitual vitamin D supplement use (0-57·5 µg/d) against the biomarker serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D) and against 3-d food records (FR) (n 29-67). Median total vitamin D intake among participants was 9·4 (range 1·6-30·5) µg/d. Spearman's correlations for vitamin D and Ca ranged from 0·28 (P 0·146, FFQ v. S-25(OH)D, persons not using supplements) to 0·75 (P
Fatty acids (FA) modulate the immune system, and it has been proposed that they affect the incidence of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. We explored the association of maternal dietary FA composition during pregnancy with the risk of asthma in the offspring.
We analyzed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Nutrition Study. Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy (8th month) was assessed by a validated 181-item food frequency questionnaire. The occurrence of asthma was assessed at the age of 5 yr with a questionnaire modified from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses.
Low maternal intakes of a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) [lowest quarter vs. mid-half HR 1.67 (95% CI 1.12-2.48)] and total n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) [HR 1.66 (95% CI 1.11-2.48)] during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of asthma in the offspring, while a low intake of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) [HR 0.52 (95% CI 0.32-0.84)] and high intake of total saturated fatty acids [highest quarter vs. mid-half HR 0.55 (95% CI 0.34-0.90)] and palmitic acid (16:0) [HR 0.51 (95% CI 0.31-0.83)] were associated with a decreased risk of asthma. The ratios of n-6 to n-3-PUFA and 18:2n-6 to 18:3n-3, and the maternal intake of oils, fish and fish products, showed no association with the risk of asthma. The associations found were independent of several perinatal and clinical confounders.
Maternal intake of FA during pregnancy was associated with childhood asthma. Maternal a-linolenic acid, total n-3 PUFA and palmitic acid intake may decrease, while arachidonic acid intake may increase the risk of asthma in the offspring.
To study the associations between home food availability and dietary patterns among pre-school children.
Cross-sectional study in which parents of the participating children filled in an FFQ and reported how often they had certain foods in their homes. We derived dietary pattern scores using principal component analysis, and composite scores describing the availability of fruits and vegetables as well as sugar-enriched foods in the home were created for each participant. We used multilevel models to investigate the associations between availability and dietary pattern scores.
The DAGIS study, Finland.
The participants were 864 Finnish 3-6-year-old children recruited from sixty-six pre-schools. The analyses included 711 children with sufficient data.
We identified three dietary patterns explaining 16·7 % of the variance. The patterns were named 'sweets-and-treats' (high loadings of e.g. sweet biscuits, chocolate, ice cream), 'health-conscious' (high loadings of e.g. nuts, natural yoghurt, berries) and 'vegetables-and-processed meats' (high loadings of e.g. vegetables, cold cuts, fruit). In multivariate models, the availability of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with the sweets-and-treats pattern (ß=-0·05, P
To describe the diet of a population of pregnant Finnish women over a period of 7 years, with special attention paid to seasonal fluctuations in food consumption and nutrient intake.
A validated 181-item FFQ was applied retrospectively, after delivery, to assess the maternal diet during the 8th month of pregnancy.
Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study Cohort.
The cohort comprised a total of 4880 women who had newly delivered during the years 1997-2004, with the offspring carrying increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Over the study period, the proportion of energy derived from fat decreased while the intake from protein and carbohydrate increased. The intake of vitamin D increased from food sources. Seasonal variation was observed in the mean daily consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries and cereals. Intake of dietary fibre, total fat, MUFA, vitamins A, D, E and C, folate and iron also showed seasonal fluctuation.
These results show an overall positive trend in the diet of pregnant Finnish women through the study years. However, there is still room for improvement, particularly in the types of dietary fats. Although food fortification with vitamin D since 2003 was reflected in the increased intake of vitamin D from foods, the mean intake levels still fell below the recommendations. Seasonal changes in food consumption were observed and related to corresponding fluctuations in nutrient intakes. The mean folate intake fell below the recommendation throughout the year.
There is a need for food-based solutions for preventing vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D3 (D3) is mainly used in fortified food products, although the production of vitamin D2 (D2) is more cost-effective, and thus may hold opportunities. We investigated the bioavailability of D2 from UV-irradiated yeast present in bread in an 8-week randomised-controlled trial in healthy 20-37-year-old women (n 33) in Helsinki (60°N) during winter (February-April) 2014. Four study groups were given different study products (placebo pill and regular bread=0 µg D2 or D3/d; D2 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D2/d; D3 supplement and regular bread=25 µg D3/d; and placebo pill and D2-biofortified bread=25 µg D2/d). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25(OH)D2) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25(OH)D3) concentrations were measured at baseline, midpoint and end point. The mean baseline total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH)D=S-25(OH)D2+S-25(OH)D3) concentration was 65·1 nmol/l. In repeated-measures ANCOVA (adjusted for baseline S-25(OH)D as total/D2/D3), D2-bread did not affect total S-25(OH)D (P=0·707) or S-25(OH)D3 (P=0·490), but increased S-25(OH)D2 compared with placebo (P
The objective was to develop a Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI), to determine the relative validity of the index and to examine associations between the index and familial sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.
Cross-sectional samples of children participating in a population-based birth cohort study in Finland.
Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study cohort.
Three-day food records from 1-year-old (n 455), 3-year-old (n 471) and 6-year-old (n 713) children were completed between 2003 and 2005.
Validity of the FCHEI was assessed by studying the associations between the FCHEI and nutrient intakes of the children. Among all age groups, intakes of SFA and sugars decreased across increasing quartiles of the FCHEI while intakes of PUFA, dietary fibre, vitamin D and vitamin E increased. Among 3- and 6-year-olds, being cared for at home was associated with the lowest FCHEI quartile (diet that deviates most from the recommendations). The lowest FCHEI quartile was also associated with residence in a semi-urban area among the 3-year-olds and low maternal education and smoking during pregnancy among the 6-year-olds.
The FCHEI serves as a valid indicator of the quality of Finnish children's diet. Public health programmes aimed at improving the dietary behaviours of pre-school aged children should aim to improve the quality of food served at home. Families with history of lower parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy or non-urban place of residence may require special attention.
To assess and compare the food consumption and nutrient intake between 3-year-old children cared for at home full-time and those attending day care outside the home. Nutrient intake on weekdays and weekends was also studied.
Cross-sectional sample of children invited to the nutrition study within the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) birth cohort born in 2001. Families returned 3-d food record completed close to the child's third birthday.
A total of 471 pre-school children aged 3 years of whom 285 had only been cared for at home during the recording time and 186 had attended day care outside the home.
Among the children cared for outside the home, there were more consumers of recommendable foods as fresh vegetables, fruits, berries, rye bread, fish, skimmed milk and vegetable margarines, than among those cared for at home. The day-care group had higher intake of protein, dietary fibre, thiamine, potassium and magnesium, and lower intake of sucrose compared with the group cared for at home. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors did not change the results. In all children, food consumption was more varied on weekdays compared with weekends. On weekdays, children had higher intake of dietary fibre and protein and lower intake of sucrose compared to weekends.
The type of day care was associated with food consumption and nutrient intake among pre-school children and hence might have an impact on their nutrition and health. The diet of the children attending day care outside the home was more balanced and closer to the national recommendations.