The objective of the study was to assess whether reduced semen quality in infertile couples is associated with occupational exposures known to be hazardous to fertility. Results of the first semen analysis were linked to occupational exposure data from a self-administered questionnaire. Reduced semen quality was found in men exposed to electromagnetic fields (odds ratio, 3.22; confidence interval, 1.46 to 7.09). A tendency toward reduced semen quality was seen in commuters (OR, 1.52; CI, 0.89 to 2.59), shift workers (OR, 1.46; CI, 0.89 to 2.40), and men exposed to heavy metals (OR, 1.47; CI, 0.76 to 2.87). In general, the impact of occupational exposure on semen quality in infertile couples in Norway seemed to be minor. However, occupational exposure mapping is still important in individual infertility investigations.
646 women, aged 14-49, who underwent induced abortion in the 6th-17th weeks of pregnancy were tested for gonorrhea, candidiasis, and vaginal trichomoniasis. 2.3% of the women had gonorrhea, all of whom were young and unmarried. 2.3% had trichomoniasis and 10.2% had candidiasis. 1 patient had gonorrhea and a candidiasis infection.
A study of the admissions to the University of Bergen, Norway, hospital for ectopic pregnancy during the 1965-78 period was conducted. A retrospective study of patients' records for cases occurring during 1965-71 was made. For the later period, the study was made prospectively by registering every new patient and emphasizing analysis of etiological and clinical factors. Of the 450 ectopic pregnancies occurring during this period, 105 had an IUD in place. The incidence of ectopic pregnancies in women with IUDs increased in the last 5 years. Lippes loop was the IUD most often involved early in the study and the Copper T and Copper 7 were more prevalent later on, reflecting device popularity. The IUD group had significantly fewer etiological findings for ectopic pregnancy than the non-IUD group. In other words, there were many less incidences of pelvic inflammatory disease, other pelvic adhesions, and earlier spontaneous abortions in the IUD group than in the non-IUD group. Patients with an IUD in place tended to register symptoms earlier in the ectopic pregnancy but to be in worse condition at the time of admission to the hospital. Localization of the ectopic pregnancy is tabulated. There was a statistically significant greater incidence of ovarian pregnancies among the IUD women, which is possibly explained by the fact that the antifertility effect of the IUD is strongest in the endometrial cavity, weaker in the tube, and absent beyond the tube.
Pregnancy outcome was studied in a county in Norway 3 years prior to and 3 years subsequent to the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident on 26th April 1986. More detailed analyses have been performed for the 12 months prior to and subsequent to the accident. A significant increase in the spontaneous abortion rate the first year after the accident was followed by a slight decrease during the second and third years, but figures were still higher than the period prior to the accident. The rate of legal abortions was unchanged. During the entire observation period the number of births increased continuously, with the exception of a decrease in the last 2 months of 1986 and the first month of 1987. A higher incidence of spontaneous abortions was found for pregnancies conceived during the first 3 months after the accident. This increase in the spontaneous abortion rate is noteworthy, and more especially its long-term persistence, which cannot be the result of external radiation. The internal radiation from food polluted by radioactive fallout is a possible explanation. Changes in nutrition in order to avoid polluted food may also be of importance.
Records of 25 cases of ovarian pregnancy in the period 1965 to 1984 were reviewed. Seventeen cases (68%), had an IUCD in situ, and 15 of these had occurred during the last decade. The ratio of ovarian pregnancy to all ectopic pregnancies was 1:13 in the IUCD group versus 1:78 in the non-IUCD group (p less than 0.025). In contrast to patients with tubal pregnancies, those with ovarian pregnancy very seldom have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, or earlier pelvic operations. Subsequent fertility is good compared with patients with tubal pregnancies, for patients both with and without IUCD.
Pregnancy outcome has been studied in terms of legal abortions, early spontaneous abortions and total number of pregnancies (in an ad hoc study covering 6 counties) as well as various perinatal health problems (on the basis of routinely recorded data for epidemiological surveillance from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway). Apparently, no effects were observed in terms of an increased occurrence of legal abortions, while spontaneous abortions increased from 7.2% of all pregnancies during the last 12 months before the accident to 8.3% after the accident [corrected]. At the same time, the total number of pregnancies somewhat decreased. Based on monthly measurements in each municipality of external and internal (food-based) doses, dose-response associations were assessed for a number of perinatal health problems. No associations were observed.
The outcome of pregnancies in six countries in Norway has been studied during 12 months prior and subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. The accident took place in a period with an annual increase of births of approximately 3%. However, the year after the accident a decrease of 0.7% was observed with particularly low numbers during February--April 1987. Concomitantly, the miscarriage fraction of all pregnancies increased by 16.3% and particularly during November 1986--January 1987. The same pattern was found when observations from Haukeland Hospital were analyzed separately. When the time of conception was taken into consideration we found that conceptions during the period May--July 1986 ended more often as miscarriages. We have no explanation of the observations. The external radiation exposure seems too small to have produced these effects. The internal radiation from food may have played a role. People may also have changed their food intake, using less vegetables, due to fear of these being polluted by radioactive fallout.
Seventy-two patients with repeat ectopic pregnancy including 3 women with three ectopic pregnancies each during the period 1965 to 1984 were studied. In the same period there was a total of 842 ectopic pregnancies, giving a repeat ectopic pregnancy incidence of 9.4%. In the last decade the incidence of repeat ectopic pregnancy was 10.4%, and in the first decade it was 7.0% (p less than 0.025). None of the women used an intra-uterine contraceptive device, among those with repeat ectopic pregnancy in the first decade, vis-à-vis 17 (30.4%) in the last decade. A history of infertility was common among the patients with repeat ectopic pregnancy. Between the two events there was a total of 17 deliveries in 13 patients. Four out of 24 potentially fertile women completed full-term pregnancies following their second ectopic pregnancy.
OBJECTIVE: To assess possible secular trends in sperm variables in men according to previous or subsequent paternity. DESIGN: A comparison of secular trends in sperm variables 1975-1994 in men under investigation for infertility in groups according to previous and subsequent paternity, based on data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. SETTING: University hospital, Sperm laboratory and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. MATERIAL: Samples were obtained from: 1108 men who had fathered at least one child before the analysis. 1786 men who had at least one child after the analysis, and 2286 men with no children registered. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sperm concentration, seminal fluid volume, total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate. RESULTS: Analyzed by year of evaluation, men with no child registered had a significant secular decrease of sperm concentration, total number of sperms per ejaculate and seminal volume. The group with subsequent children had significant secular decrease of sperm concentration and total sperm count per ejaculate, while no significant changes were found for the group with previous children. Analyzed by year of birth, a significant decrease of sperm concentration and total sperm count was found for the group without and for the group with subsequent children. CONCLUSION: The results are compatible with a cohort effect, exhibiting a trend of deteriorating sperm variables in consecutive birth cohorts.
The serum concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25-(OH)2D), and vitamin D binding protein, calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 19 grand multiparous Libyan women at delivery, and in the umbilical cord blood of 14 of their babies. The results were compared with similarly collected data from 22 vitamin D-supplemented Norwegian mother-infant pairs. The median 25-OHD and 24,25-(OH)2D concentrations were significantly lower for the Libyan group (maternal 25-OHD: 34 vs 112 nmol/l; cord 25-OHD: 20 vs 76 nmol/l; maternal 24,25-(OH)2D: 0.6 vs 4.1 nmol/l; cord 24,25-(OH)2D: 0.4 vs 2.7 nmol/l, P less than 0.001 for all differences). In both groups the 25-OHD and 24,25-(OH)2D levels in maternal as well as in cord blood were closely associated (P less than 0.001). The median 1,25-(OH)2D level was similar for the two maternal groups (198 vs 194 pmol/l), but slightly lower for the Libyan than for the Norwegian cord samples (80 vs 93 pmol/l, P = 0.04). A calculated free 1,25-(OH)2D concentration (not bound to vitamin D binding protein) did not differ between the two maternal or cord groups. Calcium and phosphate concentrations were similar for the respective maternal and cord samples, while the median alkaline phosphatase level of cord blood was slightly higher for the Libyan group (P = 0.04). The results suggest that calcium and phosphate homoeostasis of pregnant women and their fetuses can be maintained despite wide variations in vitamin D supply and numerous repeated pregnancies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)