The aim of the present investigation was to study differences in background factors between ice-hockey-playing boys who used snuff, who had tried using snuff, and who had never used snuff. The background factors studied were the socio-economic conditions of the boys' parents; the tobacco habits of the boys' parents, siblings, and friends; the boys' choice of theoretical or practical upper secondary school programme; knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco as well as participation in a sport other than ice hockey. Data were collected usinG a questionnaire. Of 249 boys in the age group 12-19 years who participated in the study, 13% used snuff, 34% had tried using snuff, and 53% had never used snuff. The factors knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco and choice of theoretical or practical upper secondary school programme had no significant association with the boys' snuffing habits. This was also true for the parents' tobacco habits unless their habits were analysed separate from each other, where "mother smoked" showed an association with boys who used snuff. The study also showed a significant difference between boys who used snuff and boys who had never used snuff and between boys who had tried using snuff and boys who had never used snuff; boys who used snuff tended to have siblings who used snuff. Of boys who used snuff, 77% reported that their friends' use of snuff had influenced them to start using snuff. A significant difference could also be shown between boys who used snuff, had tried using snuff and never-users depending on whether the boys participated in a sport other than ice hockey. Snuff usage was not as widespread among boys who participated in other sport activities. This was verified by the multivariate logistic regression analysis where "taking part in other sports than ice hockey" was the explanatory variable that showed the strongest association with the dependent variable. An active participation in ice hockey and the environment, in which this sport is practised, would consequently be a strong influencing factor to start using snuff.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate how clinical practice by Swedish dental hygienists was related to type of dental delivery system, period of training, educational institution attended and patient category. Dental hygienists from 14 different dental hygiene schools were represented. Of these schools, 11 are still in operation. A specially designed questionnaire was posted to all dental hygienists in Sweden (n = 1857). A total of 1399 questionnaire (75.3%) were completed and returned, providing data on 15,546 dental appointments. 37.2% of the Swedish dental hygienists are presently working in private practices, 45.8% in the public dental health service and 6.2% in both. Of the patients treated by hygienists, 88.7% were adults: 99.5% in private practice and 78.4% in the public dental health service. 42.0% of all dental hygienists were trained in 1980-84. The mean treatment time per appointment in private practice was 49.7 min and 45 min in the public dental health service. Scaling, root-planning and removal of overhangs took 27 min per visit in private practice and 22 min in the public dental health service. However, there were no significant differences in methods in the two delivery systems with respect to examinations, self-care training, professional mechanical toothcleaning (PMTC), topical fluoride application, or salivary and oral microbiology tests. The adult patient categories were periodontal risk (45.1%), caries risk (9.1%) and hygiene (34.6%). In periodontal risk patients, scaling, root-planning and removal of overhangs took 28 min per appointment and 14 min in caries risk patients.
The aim of this study was to investigate tobacco habits among ice-hockey-playing boys in three clubs in the County of VÃ¤rmland, Sweden and to analyse whether health information about the harmful effects of tobacco could change the players' tobacco habits. In addition, the issue of whether there is any correlation between knowledge of tobacco and its harmful effects with tobacco habits was studied. Ice-hockey-players from three ice-hockey clubs were represented and one of the clubs acted as a control group. A total of 252 male ice-hockey-players, 12-19 years old participated. A specially designed questionnaire containing 33 questions on background, socioeconomics, behaviour, and knowledge was used. The boys answered the questionnaire on three occasions. The first and second examinations took place on the same occasion with the intervention occurring between the examinations. The third examination was carried out after 3-5 weeks. The study showed that the use of snuff played a more important role among the ice-hockey-players than did smoking and that they had tried using snuff at the age of 12. The baseline investigation showed that there were no significant differences between the clubs in tobacco habits and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco. After the health information, the boys' knowledge of tobacco and its harmful effects increased significantly (p
This study examined the prevalence of tobacco habits and the influence of the social environment among Swedish female athletes representing both individual and team sports in Sweden.
A self-reported cross-sectional survey was performed with 791 female athletes 15-24 years old representing ten of the most common sports in Sweden. The questions related to the participants' involvement in sports and their tobacco habits.
Findings revealed that a large proportion of the female athletes had never smoked (65%) or used snus (74%). However, a considerable portion of the participants had tried smoking (27%) or using snus (20%), especially those involved in team sports. Results also showed statistically significant associations between female athletes' smoking habits and those of both their mothers and their peers, but not with the tobacco habits of their coaches, indicating that coaches do not influence the female athletes' use of tobacco.
In conclusion, this study indicated that the vast majority of female athletes did not use tobacco. A significant portion had sometimes tried tobacco, especially members of team sports, but this behaviour did not seem to be influenced by the tobacco habits of their coaches.