INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to quantify the impact of different dietary factors on the mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. METHODS: Relative risks and knowledge on the distribution of different dietary factors were used to estimate etiological fractions. RESULTS: It is estimated that an intake of fruit and vegetables and saturated fat as recommended would prevent 12 and 22%, respectively, of deaths from ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. An intake of fish among those at high risk for ischaemic heart disease, would lead to a 26% lower mortality, while alcohol intake among abstainers would have no significant quantitative effect. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that changes in dietary habits according to current recommendations would have an impact on public health in Denmark.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Population study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. INTERVENTIONS: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages. Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. RESULTS: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible. The between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake appeared to be stable over the range of age and BMI in both sexes. As compared to estimated total energy expenditure, both diet assessment methods underestimated energy intake by approximately 20%. For both methods the under-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. CONCLUSIONS: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council, the FREJA programme.
[Cardiovascular risk factors--extent and self-assessed risk in relation to prevention of cardiovascular diseases. A questionnaire among 3,956 men and women aged 24-65 years in Vejle County, Slangerup and Helsinge municipalities]
In autumn 1989, a material of 1,330 men and 1,561 women aged 20-65 years and resident in the County of Vejle replied to a standardized questionnaire about their knowledge and behaviour in relation to prophylaxis of cardiovascular disease. During the same period, 501 men 565 women in the Municipalities of Helsinge and Slangerup participated in a similar investigation. It was investigated whether the behaviours of the participants as regards tobacco, physical activity, diet, experience of stress and overweight were unsuitable in relation to prevention of cardiovascular disease. 22% of the men and 11% of the women had unfavourable behaviour in more than two of these factors. The percentage proportion with many unfavourable factors was greatest among persons with the lowest school education. The majority of the participants were aware of the factors which are of significance for the development of cardiovascular disease. The general level of knowledge was high. A majority of the participants with many unfavourable factors assessed their own risk of development of cardiovascular disease as great. The proportion of the participants who were aware that a personal effort was of significance to retain health was greatest in the group where the behaviour was most suitable both where men an women were concerned.
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 1992 Jun 8;154(24):1716-81632010
A common statement from exsmokers is that symptoms of asthma develop shortly after smoking cessation. This study, therefore, investigated the relationship between smoking cessation and development of asthma in a large cohort from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). The CCHS is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of the general population from the capital of Denmark, conducted between 1976 and 1994. The study population involved the 10,200 subjects who provided information on self-reported asthma and smoking habits from the first two examinations (baseline and 5-yr follow-up), and the 6,814 subjects who also attended the third and last examination (10-yr follow-up). The point-prevalence of smoking cessation as well as the asthma incidence between examinations was estimated, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between changes in smoking habits and development of asthma. During the study period, asthma incidence increased from 1.2-4.2%. Between examinations 1,316 subjects quit smoking. Smoking cessation between examinations was significantly related to reported asthma at follow-up. With never-smokers as the reference group and following adjustment for sex, age, chronic bronchitis, level of forced expiratory volume in one second and pack-yrs of smoking, the odds ratio (OR) for developing asthma when quitting smoking between examinations was 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-8.2) from baseline to first follow-up and 3.1 (95% CI 1.9-5.1) from first to second follow-up. Continuing smoking also increased the risk of asthma significantly (OR 2.6 and 2.0, respectively). The results indicate that exsmokers have a higher incidence of self-reported asthma than never-smokers. It is likely that subjects perceive chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as asthma, hence the relationship between smoking cessation and asthma might be due to misclassification rather than causality.