Respiratory-distress syndrome (RDS) in the newborn is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Although prematurity is the most-important risk factor for RDS, the syndrome does not develop in many premature infants. The main cause of RDS is a deficiency of pulmonary surfactant, which consists of phospholipids and specific proteins. The genes underlying susceptibility to RDS are insufficiently known. The candidate-gene approach was used to study the association between the surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene locus and RDS in the genetically homogeneous Finnish population. In the present study, 88 infants with RDS and 88 control infants that were matched for degree of prematurity, prenatal glucocorticoid therapy, and sex were analyzed for SP-A genotypes. We show that certain SP-A1 alleles (6A2 and 6A3) and an SP-A1/SP-A2 haplotype (6A2/1A0) were associated with RDS. The 6A2 allele was overrepresented and the 6A3 allele was underrepresented in infants with RDS. These associations were particularly strong among small premature infants born at gestational age
AIM: To evaluate the trends in the incidence, clinical course and outcome of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in the newborn in the Oulu University Hospital region in northern Finland. METHODS: In the population of 58 990 infants, the incidence rates of RDS specific to gestational age and birthweight in two consecutive periods, 1990-95 and 1996-99, were calculated. Clinical course and other neonatal morbidities were reported. All surviving infants were followed up until 1 y of corrected age. RESULTS: The overall incidence of RDS did not change significantly (8.7/1000 livebirths in 1990-95 vs 7.6 in 1996-99; p = 0.15), but the gestational age-adjusted incidence decreased between the two consecutive periods (p = 0.005). The frequency of infants with gestational age below 28 wk tended to increase towards the late 1990s, while their RDS incidence remained unchanged. RDS-related neonatal mortality decreased in parallel with neonatal mortality, accounting for 15% of all neonatal deaths. The duration of oxygen therapy shortened (8.0 vs 5.5 d) and the incidence of pneumothorax decreased (9.7 vs 4.1%), whereas the rate of chronic lung disease at 36 wk of postconceptional age (16.4 vs 16.7%) and at 1 y of corrected age (9.2 vs 8.2%) remained unchanged, as did also associated neurosensory morbidity (8.8 vs 9.5%). CONCLUSION: During the 1990s, the incidence of RDS shifted towards more immature infants and the gestational-age specific incidence decreased. The course of the disease shortened and acute complications decreased. The frequency of chronic pulmonary sequelae (and associated neurosensory morbidity) at the age of 1 y did not change significantly.
Data on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep during a day is compositional in nature, i.e. they add up to a constant value. Compositional data have fundamentally different properties from unconstrained data in real space, and require other analytical procedures, referred to as compositional data analysis (CoDA). Most physical activity and sedentary behavior studies, however, still apply analytical procedures adapted to data in real space, which can lead to misleading results. The present study describes a comparison of time spent sedentary and in physical activity between age groups and sexes, and investigates the extent to which results obtained by CoDA differ from those obtained using standard analytical procedures.
Time spent sedentary, standing, and in physical activity (walking/running/stair climbing/cycling) during work and leisure was determined for 1-4 days among 677 blue-collar workers using accelerometry. Differences between sexes and age groups were tested using MANOVA, using both a standard and a CoDA approach based on isometric log-ratio transformed data.
When determining differences between sexes for different activities time at work, the effect size using standard analysis (?2?=?0.045, p?
Excess of inflammatory cytokines is implicated in the sequence of inflammatory diseases during the perinatal period. Specific cytokines induce spontaneous premature labor and accelerate fetal lung maturity in case of chorioamnionitis. In addition, they are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung disease, periventricular white matter damage, shock and multiorgan damage. Deficient cytokine response of the immature lung is associated with severe respiratory distress syndrome and persistent fetal circulation syndrome. Surfactant supplementation remains the cornerstone among therapies in the premature infant. Brief courses of glucocorticoids, antioxidants or inhaled nitric oxides remain to be fully evaluated as possible adjunct therapies shortly after birth in small premature infants with severe cardiorespiratory failure.
Intra-amniotic interleukin (IL)-1 increases surfactant components in immature fetal lung, whereas high IL-1 after birth is associated with surfactant dysfunction. Our aim was to investigate whether the fetal age influences the responsiveness of surfactant proteins (SPs) to IL-1. Rabbit lung explants from fetuses at 19, 22, 27, and 30 d of gestation and 1-d-old newborns were cultured in serum-free medium in the presence of recombinant human (rh) IL-1alpha or vehicle. The influence of IL-1alpha on SP-A, -B, and -C messenger RNA (mRNA) content was dependent on the conceptional age. In very immature lung on Day 19, rhIL-1alpha (570 ng/ml for 20 h) increased SP-A, -B, and -C mRNA by 860+/-15%, 314+/-108%, and 64+/-17%, respectively. The increase in SP-A mRNA was evident within 4 to 6 h. IL-1alpha increased the SP-A concentration in alveolar epithelial cells and in the culture medium within 20 h. In contrast, at 27 to 30 d of gestation and in newborns, IL-1alpha decreased SP-C, -B, and -A mRNA by means of 64 to 67%, 48 to 59%, and 12 to 15%, respectively. SP-B protein decreased by 45 to 60%. The decrease in mRNA became evident within 8 to 12 h and was dependent on IL-1 concentration. On Day 27, IL-1alpha accelerated the degradation of SP-B mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D. IL-1 did not increase the degradation rate of SP-A mRNA unless both actinomycin D and cycloheximide were added to the explants. The present findings may explain some of the contrasting associations between inflammatory cytokines and lung diseases during the perinatal period. The determinants of the direction of the IL-1 effect on the expression of SPs remain to be identified.
Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed. Activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking, and stair climbing were identified and %HRR in each of these activities was determined for work and leisure. %HRR was significantly higher during OPA than LTPA. These differences were more pronounced in men than in women. Although not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model, we found indications that these differences were more pronounced in those with low compared to high fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study with objective measurements showing that %HRR is higher during the same gross-body postural activities when performed at work compared to leisure-time during workdays. This elevated intensity may help explaining the negative health consequences of engagement in high levels of OPA. Future guidelines should distinguish OPA from LTPA, possibly by advising workers to remain active during their leisure time, in particular when they are highly active at work.
OBJECTIVE: Fulminant early-onset neonatal pneumonia is associated with ascending intrauterine infection (IUI), prematurity, persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN), and septicemia. Nitric oxide (NO) as an inflammatory mediator is included in antimicrobial defense and has a role in pathogenesis of septic shock. The aim was to study the role of inflammatory NO in neonatal pneumonia. METHODS: Lungs from 36 autopsies were studied: 12 had fulminant early-onset neonatal pneumonia, 5 pneumonia of later onset, and 19 controls had similar gestational and postnatal age. In addition, airway specimens from 21 intubated newborns were analyzed: 7 with fulminant early-onset pneumonia, 7 apparently noninfected infants born prematurely attributable to IUI, and 7 premature infants of similar gestation. Specimens were analyzed for inducible NO synthase (NOS2) and nitrotyrosine, an indicator of NO toxicity. The degree of staining was analyzed. RESULTS: In fulminant pneumonia, alveolar macrophages (AM) showed significantly less NOS2 immunoactivity than the controls. In the airway specimens, the infants with fulminant pneumonia 0 to 2 days after birth had significantly lower intracellular NOS2 and nitrotyrosine and significantly lower interleukin-1beta and surfactant protein-A than apparently noninfected IUI infants. NOS2 and the other indices increased significantly during the recovery. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we report NOS2 expression by macrophages from human neonates. In fulminant early-onset neonatal pneumonia, delayed production rather than excess of pulmonary inflammatory NO is associated with severe symptoms.
AIM: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator required for neonatal pulmonary circulatory adaptation and for pulmonary defence. Both deficient and excessive NO production have been proposed to play a role in neonatal lung disease. This study aimed to establish a method that allows direct measurement of exhaled and nasal NO concentrations in newborn infants who require intubation and ventilation. METHODS: A rapid-response chemiluminescence NO analyser was used. Gas was sampled from the endotracheal intubation tube, and tidal volumes and flow rates were measured. The nasal NO was sampled from the non-intubated nostril. The accuracy of the method was validated using a lung model. NO levels from six preterm and six term/near-term newborns were studied. Measurements were performed on a daily basis during the first week. RESULTS: An expiration >0.2 s in duration with a flow rate >1.7 ml s(-1) could be accurately analysed for the presence of >1 parts per billion of NO. The very preterm infants with neonatal lung disease had a different postnatal NO output pattern from the lower and upper airways compared with the ventilated term/near-term infants. CONCLUSION: A novel method for measurement of exhaled NO of an intubated newborn is presented. The possible association of exhaled NO concentration with the development of chronic lung disease remains to be studied.
We examined the long-term outcomes and safety of early intravenous paracetamol for ductus arteriosus closure at a corrected age of two years.
This was a follow-up of the 2013-2014 randomised, double-blind Preterm Infant's Paracetamol Study at Oulu University Hospital, Finland, which recruited 48 very preterm infants within 24 hours of birth. They received intravenous paracetamol or a placebo for four days. In 2015-2017, we followed up 44 infants (92%) at two years of corrected age. This included clinical and neurodevelopmental assessments and a parental medical history questionnaire.
The 44 infants (55% boys) were born at 235 -316 weeks of gestation. No differences in the cardiac parameters, including blood pressures and ultrasound scan results, were found. Neurodevelopmental stages, as quantified by the Griffiths test, were similar. No signs of autism were reported. Asthma medication was more common in the control group, but the difference was not significant. Atopy scores, numbers of infections and the use of public health services were similar between the two groups.
No long-term adverse reactions of early intravenous paracetamol were detected two years later. Larger trials are needed on the safety and efficacy of paracetamol prophylaxis for early ductal closure in very preterm infants.