The aims of the study were to estimate the importance of dietary habits for colorectal cancers and adenomas. By comparing risk factors among cancer and adenoma patients the adenoma cancer theory was indirectly evaluated. The study was performed as a case-control study within a large screening trial in Denmark. All cancer and adenoma patients diagnosed at the screening were recruited as cases; controls were selected among test negatives after matching for age, sex and time of screening. All those selected except 85, participated in a 7-day dietary recall. Altogether 49 colorectal cancer patients and 172 with adenomas were examined; 362 individuals who were test negatives in the Hemoccult-II screen served as controls. The intake of crude dietary fibres was shown to be associated with reduced risk of cancer as well as adenomas. Neither cancer nor adenoma occurrences were related to total energy intake or body mass. Vitamins E and A were negatively associated with adenoma occurrence.
In order to evaluate the prognostic significance of risk factors for developing breast cancer, a population-based study was conducted of 2,445 breast cancer patients diagnosed in Denmark, 1983-1984. Data on clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer were derived from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and data on risk factors from a self-administered questionnaire. Among 1,744 patients (71%) with complete information, survival was determined primarily by size of the tumour, skin invasion, number of positive lymph nodes and grade. No significant association was found between survival and reproductive or hormonal risk factors, dietary variables, alcohol consumption and smoking. Low current body weight and weight loss indicated a poor prognosis, independent of the clinical characteristics of the tumour.