Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education "I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University" of the Ministry of Health care and Social Development, Moscow, Russian Federation. The assessment of health risks from air pollution with emissions from industrial facilities, without the average annual background of air pollution does not meet sanitary legislation. However Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring issues official certificates for a limited number of areas covered by the observations of the full program on the stationary points. Questions of accounting average background air pollution in the evaluation of health risks from exposure to emissions from industrial facilities are considered.
The paper gives an algorithm, a procedure for calculation of aircraft noise, and its spread modeling. The performed investigations have provided guidelines that will become the first Russian official guiding document for assessing a risk from aviation noise to human health.
According to a Concept of continuous special education, postgraduate special training remains an essential link in creating a widely educated doctor with humanistic and natural-science ideology, high culture and knowledge of contemporary circumstances.
There are considered the current problems of improving population health risk assessment for assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological well-being. Their solution permit to improve the risk assessment methodology in Russia and overcome unnecessary barriers in the way of a practical application of the criteria of acceptable risk and damage to health to support management decisions.
Comparative analysis of information value of the official data sources on disease incidence and public state of health with regards to the risk assessment methodology has been made in the article. Each out of the three information sources studied here must be taken into consideration when performing risk assessment projects, for the data obtained give necessary supplementary knowledge on the human health which, in its turn, allows to determine the enterprises (production units) substantially contributing to environmental contamination in the area, and thus to develop and take appropriate management decisions towards them.
Trained personnel makes effective activities of our country's state sanitary-and-epidemiological service and its promising development. Hygienists and epidemiologists have been trained at specialized faculties for more than 70 years. The state sanitary-and-epidemiological service has recently taken measures to preserve and train highly qualified specialists. In accordance with the continuous trade education concept, postgraduate training is an essential link in the moulding of a well-educated physician who can work under the present conditions. Analyzing how the current governmental educational standard in the medico-prevention specialty is met has revealed some substantial shortcomings and sets a task to correct it in the context of better training.