A growing body of studies indicate benefits of physiotherapy for patients in palliative care, for symptom relief and wellbeing. Though physiotherapists are increasingly acknowledged as important members of palliative care teams, they are still an underutilized source and not fully recognized. The aim of this study was to explore the variety of activities described by physiotherapists in addressing the needs and problems of patients and their families in specialized palliative care settings.
Using a free-listing approach, ten physiotherapists working in eight specialized palliative care settings in Sweden described as precisely and in as much detail as possible different activities in which patients and their families were included (directly or indirectly) during 10 days. The statements were entered into NVivo and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Statements containing more than one activity were categorized per activity.
In total, 264 statements, containing 504 varied activities, were coded into seven categories: Counteracting a declining physical function; Informing, guiding and educating; Observing, assessing and evaluating; Attending to signs and symptoms; Listening, talking with and understanding; Caring for basic needs; and Organizing, planning and coordinating. In practice, however, the activities were intrinsically interwoven. The activities showed how physiotherapists aimed, through care for the body, to address patients' physical, psychological, social and existential needs, counteracting the decline in a patient's physical function and wellbeing. The activities also revealed a great variation, in relation not only to what they did, but also to their holistic and inseparable nature with regard to why, how, when, where, with whom and for whom the activities were carried out, which points towards a well-adopted person-centred palliative care approach.
The study provides hands-on descriptions of how person-centred palliative care is integrated in physiotherapists' everyday activities. Physiotherapists in specialized palliative care help patients and families to bridge the gap between their real and ideal everyday life with the aim to maximize security, autonomy and wellbeing. The concrete examples included can be used in understanding the contribution of physiotherapists to the palliative care team and inform future research interventions and outcomes.
BACKGROUND: This article examines whether the neighbourhood environment influences intermediate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as obesity (body mass index [BMI]), and lifestyle factors, such as no physical activity and smoking, when adjusted for the individual socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: The study consists of face-to-face interviews from the Swedish Annual Level of Living Survey (SALLS) matched with the social status of the respondents' residential areas measured by two composite indices, the Care Need Index (CNI) and the Townsend score. The response rate was about 80%. This study was limited to the residents aged 25-74 years and consists of 9240 interviews from the years 1988-1989, when there were extended items in the SALLS about health and lifestyle. The data were analysed using a hierarchical logistic regression model. RESULTS: There was a gradient within every SES group so that respondents with a low (or intermediate or high) educational level exhibited an increasing proportion of daily smokers, physically inactive people and obese individuals with increasing neighbourhood deprivation. The multilevel model showed that respondents living in the most deprived neighbourhoods had an increased risk for being a daily smoker, engaging in no physical activity and being obese when adjusted for the individual SES. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the area level has an important influence on risk factors for CVD which goes beyond the individual educational attainment. An increased level of living standard, more resources for primary health care and health promotion targeting the community level should be beneficial.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate how Care Need Index (CNI), a social deprivation index, may be used to allocate total primary health care resources. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey and register data. The CNI was based on sociodemographic factors: elderly persons living alone, children under age 5, unemployed people, people with low educational status, single parents, high mobility, and foreign born people. The CNI weights were calculated from the ratings of Swedish GPs of the impact of these factors on their workload. The CNI scale was transformed into a positive scale to avoid negative values. CNI weights were calculated for each decile of the study population. The risk of poor self reported health in the CNI deciles was estimated by means of a hierarchical logistic regression in the age range 25-74 (n=27 346). The MigMed database comprising all people living in Sweden was used to calculate the CNI for Stockholm. PARTICIPANTS: The Swedish population and the population in Stockholm County. MAIN RESULTS: The means of the CNI for deciles ranged from 61 (most affluent neighbourhoods) to 140 (most deprived) in Stockholm County. The ratio between the tenth and the first decile was 1.66. There was an approximately 150% increased risk of poor self reported health for people living in the most disadvantaged neighbourhoods (OR=2.50) compared with those living in the most affluent ones (OR=1). CNI ratios for the deciles corresponded approximately to the odds ratios of poor self reported health status. CONCLUSIONS: The CNI can be used to allocate total primary health care resources.
This article is a multilevel analysis of the effects on self-reported long-term illness and mortality of the socio-economic position of the neighbourhood. Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey, neighbourhood social position is measured by a composite Care Need Index, (CNI) together with such indicators of individual socio-economic position as occupation and housing tenure, with adjustment for age, sex, marital status and social network. Data came from 22,236 people aged 25-74, and were collected from 1988 to 1992. The cross-sectional data were analysed using a hierarchical logistic regression model. In a second analysis, each participant was followed from the initial interview until his or her death, or until the termination of data collection (31 December 1996). A neighbourhood's low social position and an individual resident's low socio-economic position (i.e., a manual worker, or person renting a flat) were found to be associated with increased risk of long-term illness. We conclude that a neighbourhood's low socio-economic position, that is, a high score on the CNI, is a risk factor for long-standing illness above and beyond an individual's socio-economic position. The differences in mortality could be explained by the included independent individual variables.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether morbidity, defined as the first psychiatric hospital admission and the first somatic hospital admission, differs among subgroups of foreign born and second generation (that is, native born with at least one parent born abroad) women compared with Swedish born women (that is, with both parents native born) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. DESIGN SETTING: In this follow up study the population consisted of 1 452 944 women, of whom 369 771 have an immigrant background (including second generation immigrants), aged 20-45 years. The population of 31 December 1993 was followed up to 31 December 1998. Differences in risk (hazard ratio) between different groups of immigrant women were estimated, adjusting for age, marital status, number of children, and disposable income. MAIN RESULTS: All four groups of foreign born women had higher age adjusted risks (HRs varied from 1.44 to 1.67) for a first psychiatric hospital admission than Swedish born women. The risk decreased only marginally when the sociodemographic factors were taken into consideration. Additionally, second generation women also had a higher age adjusted risk (HR = 1.42; CI = 1.37 to 1.48) than Swedish born women. The risk decreased only slightly in the main effect model. However, on analysing country of birth and first somatic hospital admissions, only non-European refugee women showed an increased age adjusted risk (HR = 1.26; CI = 1.24 to 1.29), which remained after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Foreign born and second generation women of childbearing age had a higher risk than Swedish born women for a first psychiatric hospital admission. However, only non-European refugees were at higher risk of somatic hospital admissions.
This study aimed to examine two indices of need, the underprivileged area (UPA) score and a Swedish Care Need Index (CNI, in Swedish vårdbehovsindex) with weightings from British and Swedish GPs respectively, and an index of material deprivation, Townsend score at SAMS (Small Area Market Statistics) level and at municipality level for the whole of Sweden. One third of primary health care physicians from the whole of Sweden received a questionnaire about their workload. CNI, UPA and Townsend scores were calculated using information from the Swedish census of 1990 and the registers of unemployment and migration for 1992. The Swedish GPs weighted some of the variables quite differently from the GPs in the UK. This may be important, especially at the SAMS level. The GPs in both countries considered that older people living alone contributed most to their workload. However, in Sweden the physicians ranked foreign-born people high compared with the English doctors, and in England the GPs ranked children under five years much higher than the doctors in Sweden. The correlation between the scores was high.
The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of social deprivation for psychiatric admissions and its correlation with two different deprivation scores. Care Need Index (CNI) and Townsend scores were calculated at the small area level in Malm?, a city in southern Sweden. Admission rates for all psychiatric inpatients from Malm? aged 20-79 years, admitted to the psychiatric and alcohol clinics from 1 January 1991 to 31 December 1994, were calculated. The relationship between the CNI and psychiatric admissions was analysed by applying a Poisson regression model. The results are shown as incidence density ratios (IDR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). From the most deprived areas, the first psychiatric admission rate was more than four times higher than in the most affluent areas. The rates of second and third admission were even higher. Admissions to the alcohol clinic were similar to psychiatric admissions, but the most deprived areas had first admission rates about ten times higher than in the most affluent areas. About 27% of first admissions, including patients from both psychiatric and alcohol clinics, had a diagnosis of psychosis, and 43% were substance abusers. There were differences between the patients' diagnoses in different areas. The correlation between the CNI and Townsend scores was very high. The most important finding of this study is the strong correlation between social deprivation, based on different deprivation indices, and first admissions to psychiatric and alcohol clinics.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine whether neighbourhood deprivation predicts incidence rates of coronary heart disease, beyond age and individual income. DESIGN: Follow up study from 31 December 1995 to 31 December 1999. Women and men were analysed separately with respect to incidence rates of coronary heart disease. Multilevel logistic regression was used in the analysis with individual level characteristics (age, individual income) at the first level and level of neighbourhood deprivation at the second level. Neighbourhood deprivation was measured at small area market statistics level by the use of Care Need Index. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: All women and men aged 40-64 in the Swedish population, in total 2.6 million people. MAIN RESULTS: There was a strong relation between level of neighbourhood deprivation and incidence rates of coronary heart disease for both women and men. In the full model, which took account of individual income, the risk of developing coronary heart disease was 87% higher for women and 42% higher for men in the most deprived neighbourhoods than in the most affluent neighbourhoods. For both women and men the variance at neighbourhood level was over twice the standard error, indicating significant differences in coronary heart disease risk between neighbourhoods. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of neighbourhood deprivation independently predict coronary heart disease for both women and men. Both individual and neighbourhood level approaches are important in health care policies.
Erratum In: J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Mar;58(3):259
BACKGROUND: Although it is well known that analgesics contribute to suicide, there is little knowledge about how much of the mortality and suicide can be explained by socioeconomic deprivation or by sales of analgesics. METHODS: This ecological study analyses the relationships between the sales (defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day) of dextropropoxyphene, dextropropoxyphene combinations, paracetamol, codeine and paracetamol combinations, and other codeine combinations and the Swedish UPA (underprivileged area) score, mortality and suicide rates in 33 municipalities in Sk?ne in 1987 and 1994 for people aged 20-64 years. The association of each of the subgroups of analgesics with all-cause mortality, and with standardised mortality rates for suicide, adjusted for UPA score, was investigated by using weighted (by population size) regression analysis. RESULTS: In 1994 there was a moderate to strong significant correlation between sales of analgesics and UPA scores, mortality and suicide (r = 0.49-0.78). Although UPA score explained 68.9% and 67.4% respectively of the variance between the analgesics and all-cause mortality and suicide, codeine and paracetamol combinations explained a further 10.1% of the variance in suicide. Dextropropoxyphene and codeine and paracetamol combinations explained an additional 3.8% and 2.9% respectively of the variance in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Local prescription rates for analgesics were associated with mortality and suicide, when adjusted for socioeconomic deprivation defined as UPA score.