All the 1012, 55-yr-old citizens of Oulu (a medium-sized Finnish town) were invited to a clinical examination, and 780 of them participated. The associations of lifestyle with periodontal health were analyzed in the 527 dentate subjects. Periodontal pockets deeper than 3 mm were recorded as a percentage of the surfaces at risk. Lifestyle was measured by questions about dietary habits, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and physical activity. Lifestyle had an independent association with periodontal health. Periodontal pocketing increased with an unhealthier lifestyle. Lifestyle could explain some of the social and sex differences in periodontal health.
This study examined the relationship between the severity of periodontal disease and organ complications in long-term Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients, taking account of the severity and concomitant existence of these complications. The population studied consisted of 26 Type 1 diabetics 26 to 34 years old, who had had diabetes for at least 10 years. Severity of periodontal disease was shown to increase with severity of organ complications. Patients with advanced complications had significantly more bleeding on probing, pockets > or = 4 mm deep, and more attachment loss than patients with incipient complications or no complications. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the existence of advanced complications was the only diabetes-related factor predicting pockets > or = 4 mm deep. Subgingival calculus, sex, and smoking were other significant variables. Retinopathy was the organ complication most suited to comparison, since it is usually the first to appear and can easily be classified from non-existent to severe. Differences in severity of periodontal disease were less obvious if metabolic balance alone was considered than between subgroups formed on the basis of the existence of advanced complications. Severity of periodontal disease and the existence of complications were more closely related to long-term glucose balance than single, most recent HbA1 values. Prevalence of pockets at sites with subgingival calculus increased with severity of complications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the association of yeasts and denture stomatitis with behavioral and biologic factors. STUDY DESIGN: Seven hundred eighty 55-year-old citizens of Oulu, Finland, were examined clinically; 452 of them had complete dentures. Salivary yeasts and lactobacillus counts were detected through the use of Oricult-N and Dentocult-LB dip-slide techniques. Lifestyle factors were measured by means of questions concerning physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habits. Other background variables used in cross-tabulations and logistic regression analysis were unstimulated salivary secretion rate, retention of denture, oral hygiene, gender, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The prevalence of denture stomatitis was greater among subjects with an unhealthy lifestyle, subjects with higher lactobacillus counts, and subjects with poor oral hygiene. Salivary secretion rate and smoking were associated with the presence of yeasts, but general lifestyle measures were not. CONCLUSION: The presence of yeasts tended to be associated with biologic factors, but behavioral factors reflecting lifestyle may be more important in the development of denture stomatitis.
Previous studies have proposed common psychological factors between oral health behavior and diabetes self-care. The aim here was to describe and analyse more comprehensively the relationships between dental and diabetes health behavior on the basis of attribution theory. The likeness between subjects' own assessments, similarities of the causes given to success and failure, and the predictive power of own dental assessments concerning the metabolic balance of diabetes were studied. The research population was composed of 149 IDDM patients. Data were collected by means of a quantitative questionnaire, a clinical oral examination and from patient records. It was found that from the patients reporting success with avoiding gingivitis 82% also reported success with metabolic status and they also had lower mean HbA1c levels than patients assessing failure with gingivitis. There were some correlations between causes of failure: not bothering to clean approximal surfaces correlated with non-adherence to diabetes treatment instructions, and laziness as the cause of caries correlated with non-adherence to diabetes treatment instructions and with poor motivation for diabetes care. It can be concluded that there are some common determinants for both dental health behavior and diabetes self-care. This connection should be taken into account in health education by health care professionals.
Because of a mutual association between severity of periodontitis and poor control of IDDM, regular dental visits and daily oral care are important among diabetics. The aim was to develop a method for analysing dental self-efficacy and to study the relationship between dental self-efficacy and reported oral health behaviour and oral hygiene. The relationship between oral health behaviour and HbA1c level was also studied. Data were collected in relation to 149 IDDM patients by means of a quantitative questionnaire, evaluation of dental plaque and patient records. Results showed that tooth brushing self-efficacy, approximal cleaning self-efficacy and dental visiting self-efficacy related to corresponding reported oral health behaviour (p
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this survey was to study the sensation of oral dryness and its underlying factors in the 55-year-old population of Oulu (a medium-sized Finnish town), 780 of whom (77%) participated. METHOD: In addition to the examination of oral health status and salivary flow rate measurements, depressive symptoms were determined on the basis of the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). The participants were also interviewed about their health, medication, physical health, physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and factors related to their work. RESULTS: The prevalence of subjective sensations of dry mouth was 25.8% among men and 33.3% among women (p = 0.025). A statistically significant association was found between a subjective sensation of dry mouth and a low unstimulated flow rate, regular smoking, xerogenic medication, and the presence of at least one illness connected with dry mouth. Those who had a sensation of dry mouth also thought their physical condition and their health to be poorer and more often had a high rate of depressive symptoms. After the confounding factors had been added stepwise into the logistic regression model, depressive symptoms were still significantly associated with the sensation of oral dryness. CONCLUSIONS: When evaluating the causes of the sensation of dry mouth, the possibility of depression as an underlying factor should be considered.
This paper discusses the findings in the 1012 55-year-old inhabitants of Oulu (a medium-sized Finnish town), 780 of whom (77%) were examined. The purpose was to determine the possible associations between depressive symptoms and subjective and clinical symptoms of the temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction syndrome (PDS). The PDS symptoms were determined using Helkimo's Clinical Dysfunction Index. Depressive symptoms in 768 subjects were determined using Zung's self-rating depression scale. The prevalences of high rates of depressive symptoms, subjective symptoms of PDS, and clinical symptoms of PDS in the population were 12.2%, 12.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Subjective symptoms of PDS were more common in depressed dentate men and women than in nondepressed dentate men and women. There was a significantly higher prevalence of subjective symptoms of PDS in depressed edentulous women than in nondepressed edentulous women. There were significantly more moderate or severe clinical symptoms of PDS in depressed dentate women than in nondepressed dentate women. A similar trend was seen in dentate men. An integrated approach is of crucial importance in the diagnosis and treatment of depression and the temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to study the growth of lactobacilli in subjects with depressive symptoms in the total 55-year-old population of Oulu (a medium-sized town in Finland); 780 people participated. METHODS: The dental examination included measurements of salivary lactobacillus growth with the Dentocult-LB method; measurements of salivary flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity; and assessment of oral health status. Depressive symptoms were determined with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Participants were also asked about their health, medication, smoking, and dietary habits. RESULTS: The prevalence of high lactobacillus counts (> or =100,000 CFU/ml) was 22% among women and 31% among men (p = .02). Thirty-seven percent of the subjects with a high rate of depressive symptoms (ZSDS score of > or = 40) and 23% of those with an ZSDS score of
The effects of dietary xylitol (xyl) on bone biomechanical properties in ovariectomized rats (ovx) were studied. Forty-two 3-mo-old female Wistar rats were divided into three groups of 14. Rats in two groups were ovariectomized, while those in the control group underwent a sham operation. All rats received a basal diet, and half of the ovx were given an additional 10 g/100 g dietary xyl supplementation. Three months later the rats were killed and their tibias, femurs and humeri were prepared. The tibias were used for analyses of bone density and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) and for the three-point bending test. The femurs were used for the torsion test and for the loading test of the femoral neck. The humeri were used for analyses of bone ash weight and bone concentrations of calcium and phosphorus. Dietary xyl gave a significant protection against ovariectomy-caused decline of tibial stress in the three-point bending test, of femoral shear stress in the torsion test, and of stress of the femoral neck, without affecting bone elasticity values. Xyl restricted the ovariectomy-caused reduction in bone density, in bone ash weight and in concentrations of bone calcium and phosphorus. Furthermore, trabecular bone loss in ovx was significantly suppressed by dietary xyl. These results indicate that a 10% dietary supplementation of xyl in ovx has a protective effect against the weakening of bone biomechanical properties. This is related to greater BV/TV and maintained bone mineral content.
The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of four dietary polyols to reduce bone resorption. Urinary excretion of 3H radioactivity from [3H]tetracycline-prelabeled rats was used as a marker of bone resorption. After prelabeling, the rats were divided randomly into five groups of 10, and fed for 1 mo a nonpurified diet that was supplemented in four groups with either xylitol, sorbitol, D-mannitol or erythritol, respectively, to give a polyol concentration of 1 mol/kg. Xylitol (42%), sorbitol (44%) and to a lesser degree D-mannitol (23%) decreased the excretion of 3H relative to the basal diet. The erythritol group, however, did not differ from the controls. Sorbitol caused continuous diarrhea, whereas in the other groups, intestinal adaptation took place during the 1st wk of polyol feeding. In conclusion, dietary xylitol, sorbitol and to a lesser degree D-mannitol supplementations in rats retard bone resorption, whereas dietary erythritol has no effect.