OBJECTIVE: A common polymorphism (-1C to T) in the translation initiation sequence of annexin A5 (ANV) gene has recently been associated with a decreased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between the ANV genepolymorphism and the risk of AMI and ischemic sudden cardiac death (SCD) in middle-aged Finnish males. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case-control study involving three distinct groups of subjects was carried out: (1) victims of SCD (n=98), (2) survivors of AMI (n=212), and (3) randomly selected control subjects without any history of coronary heart disease (n=243). The ANV polymorphism was genotyped in each study group. RESULTS: Among the control group of healthy Finnish males the prevalence rates of the CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 83.1%, 15.2%, and 1.6%, respectively. Among the survivors of AMI, the prevalence rates of CC, CT, and TT were 79.7%, 20.3%, and 0%, respectively, and among the victims of SCD 83.7%, 16.3%, and 0%, respectively. No significant differences in the genotype or allele distributions were observed between the study groups. CONCLUSION: The -1C to T polymorphism in the ANV gene is not associated with the risk of AMI or SCD in middle-aged Finnish males.
The net mass transfer (NMT) of cholesteryl esters (CEs), triglycerides (TGs), and phospholipids (PLs) between lipoproteins was measured after incubation of fresh plasma for up to 2 hours from 18 male alcohol abusers and 17 male volunteer control subjects. In alcohol abusers the mean value of CE NMT was 3.7 nmol.mL-1.h-1 from apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-containing lipoproteins) to HDL and in control subjects 8.7 nmol.mL-1.h-1 from HDL to apoB-containing lipoproteins. The NMT of PL was higher in alcohol abusers than in control subjects (35.0 vs 11.6 nmol.mL-1.h-1 from apoB-containing lipoproteins to HDL, respectively), and plasma PL transfer protein (TP) activity was 33% higher (P
The relationship between diabetic macroangiopathy or microangiopathy and apolipoprotein B (apoB) polymorphism was studied in 139 male and 129 female patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) mellitus, comprising consecutive patients with poor diabetic control (HBA1 13.2% +/- 2.7 (SD)) referred to our hospital. Plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were higher in the patients who were homozygous for the X2 allele (presence of XbaI cleavage site). Patients with the X1 allele (absence of XbaI cleavage site) tended to have a higher frequency of macroangiopathy, although the differences were not statistically significant. There was no difference in the prevalence of microangiopathy between the groups. In subjects with only an R1 allele (= R+; homozygous for the presence of EcoRI cleavage site) the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) was observed to be high (61.9%) as compared to the subjects possessing an R2 allele (= R-; homozygous or heterozygous for the absence of the EcoRI cleavage site) (46.7%; p
To test if the prevalence of genetic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) is low in individuals who have reached an extremely old age, the allele frequencies of apolipoprotein E (apo E) and B (apo B) polymorphisms and plasma lipoprotein(a) levels were investigated in nonagenarians and in younger control groups. The frequency of the epsilon 4 allele of apo E was significantly lower in the nonagenarians than in the middle-aged and young adults (P
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) has an essential role in lipoprotein metabolism, but recent studies have also revealed other functions associated with it, eg, neurologic and malignant diseases. We studied the association between apoE phenotypes E2/3, E3/3, and E4/3 and blood pressure after adjustment for covariates, as well as the association between phenotypes and adjusted plasma glucose and insulin levels in the standard oral glucose tolerance test in a random middle-aged population-based cohort of 259 men and 267 women. Systolic blood pressure was associated with apoE phenotype in the men with moderate or heavy alcohol consumption (>115 g/week), the mean systolic blood pressure value being 16 mm Hg higher in the E2/3 and 11 mm Hg higher in the E3/3 phenotypes than in the E4/3 phenotype, P = .04. No association was seen in occasional drinkers or teetotalers (lowest tertile
Comment In: Am J Hypertens. 1999 Sep;12(9 Pt 1):946-710509555
Comment In: Am J Hypertens. 1999 Sep;12(9 Pt 1):949-5010509558
OBJECTIVE: Variations in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene have been implicated in cardiovascular pathology. Therefore, the association between the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery and the insertion/ deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was investigated. SUBJECTS: Three hundred men and 300 women were selected randomly from the middle-aged population living in the town Oulu, Finland, of whom 515 subjects (85.8%) participated. METHODS: The IMT of the carotid arteries was determined by bilateral B-mode ultrasonography. IMT values were adjusted for gender, age, height, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, smoking and systolic blood pressure. The I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Among non-smokers, the subjects with the DD genotype had significantly higher carotid IMT than did those with II or ID. The association was found also in combined IMT plaque values. In the total population the association was weaker and it was absent in current smokers. Genotype could explain 1.3-2.7% of the variance of carotid IMT in non-smokers. No association between the amount or size of carotid plaques and genotype was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Variations at the ACE gene locus contribute to the degree of the early changes in carotid atherosclerosis in the population. The gene effect is, however, masked by stronger effects of environmental factors such as smoking. The lack of association between atherosclerotic plaques and genotypes may reflect different mechanisms being involved in plaque development and early arterial wall thickening.
The differences between the lipid profiles of male and female patients and the effect of plasma lipids on the extent of coronary artery disease were evaluated in 122 angiographically assessed coronary artery disease patients (95 males and 27 females) and 60 controls. Both male and female patients had lower HDL-cholesterol and higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol and VLDL-triglyceride concentrations than the controls. The VLDL lipid values did not differ significantly between the male patients with different extent of CAD, whereas the VLDL lipid values of female patients tended to increase with an increasing severity of CAD. High Lp(a) (> or = 35 mg/dl) values were more prevalent in patients with > 50% coronary stenosis compared to patients with
BACKGROUND: The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is involved in the reverse cholesterol transport and is therefore a candidate gene for atherosclerosis. DESIGN: The prevalences of the I405V and the R451Q polymorphisms were studied in a population sample of 515 men and women. Genotypes were determined by PCR and carotid atherosclerosis by ultrasonography as the mean intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid arteries. RESULTS: The Q451 allele was associated with significantly lower intima media thickness in men (P = 0.001). The Q451 allele was, in our earlier study, associated with high plasma CETP activity in men. The VV405 genotype was associated with lower plasma CETP activity compared with the II405 genotype (P
OBJECTIVE: To study the nutrient intakes and other lifestyle patterns of drug-treated hypertensives and control subjects. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study. SETTING: The participating study subjects visited the research laboratory of the Department of Internal Medicine of the University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1045 Finnish men and women aged 40-60 years, of whom 716 (69%) completed 7-day food records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intakes of energy, protein, total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbohydrate, alcohol, fibre, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium were assessed from 7-day food records. The study also included measurements of blood pressure, blood glucose and plasma lipids, and anthropometric variables. Information about alcohol consumption, smoking habits and physical activity was collected by interviewing. RESULTS: Obesity was common amongst the hypertensive subjects, whose body mass indices were significantly higher than those of the control subjects. Only minor differences existed in the energy intake levels and nutrient intakes of the hypertensive and control cohorts, but the control subjects performed more physical activity than the hypertensive subjects. The dietary recommendations concerning the intakes of total and saturated fats, carbohydrate and fibre were poorly met by both the hypertensive and the control subjects. Alcohol consumption was high amongst the hypertensive men, especially amongst the smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Non-pharmacological treatment, including dietary management, of hypertensive patients at high risk for cardiovascular complications seems still to be inadequate. Additional well-focused efforts are needed to intensify the dietary treatment as well as to reduce alcohol consumption and smoking amongst hypertensives.